Canada's National Strategic Relations: NATO & NORAD


Canadian leadership has long recognized that with its small population widely dispersed across the country, but clustered close to the Canada-US border, the defence of its vast territory and huge three-ocean coastline requires alliances. Canada first sheltered under the protection of the British Empire and Royal Navy. In 1940, Canada began to turn to the United States for continental security. Since the Second World War, Canadian national security has been rooted in the collective security of NATO, formed sixty years ago in April, 1949; and the bilateral/binational umbrella of NORAD, established in 1958. 

The two panels, one on NATO and the other on NORAD, sought to address the future of Canada’s role in both institutions. The six panelists together will provide a wealth of academic and real-world experience and there will be plenty of time for attendees and panelists to discuss each issue.

Conference Summary Documents

Keynote Addresses
Three keynote addresses were given at this years conference by the Hon. Bill Graham, Mr. Dwight Mason, and Mr. Josef Joffe:

Panel 1: David Bercuson
Panel one spoke on the topic of NORAD, and it was chaired by David Bercuson. It included:

Panel 2: Elinor Sloan 
The second panel was on the subject of NATO, and it was chaired by Elinor Sloan. It included:

CDFAI partnered with Innovative Research Group once again to produce a new public opinion poll to be presented at the 2009 CDFAI Annual Ottawa Conference, Canada’s National Strategic Relations: NATO & NORAD

Closing Remarks:

Keynote Speakers


Bill Graham
First elected as Member of Parliament for Toronto-Centre-Rosedale in 1993, Bill Graham served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from January 2002 until July 2004 and Minister of National Defence from July 2004 until January 2006. In February 2006, Bill Graham was appointed leader of the Official Opposition and interim leader of the Liberal Party of Canada, positions he served until December 2006.
From 1995 to 2002, Mr. Graham served as chairman of the Standing Committee of the House of Commons on Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Active in international parliamentary associations, Mr. Graham was elected founding president of the Inter-Parliamentary Forum of the Americas. He has served as vice president and treasurer of the Parliamentary Association of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and as treasurer of Liberal International.
Prior to his election to parliament, Mr. Graham practiced law at Fasken & Calvin, specializing in civil litigation and international business transactions, and served on the board of directors of various public and private Canadian corporations. Subsequently, he taught international trade law, public international law, and the law of the European Community at the University of Toronto, Faculty of Law. He also served as Director of the Centre of International Studies at the University of Toronto. Mr. Graham has been a visiting lecturer in law at McGill University and the Université de Montréal.
A past president of the Alliance française de Toronto, Mr. Graham has been recognized for his contributions to French language and culture in Ontario by being granted the Prix Jean-Baptiste Rousseaux, the Médaille d’argent de la ville de Paris, the Médaille d’or de l’Alliance française, and the Ordre du mérite de l’Association des juristes de l’Ontario. He is a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur and Chevalier de l’Ordre de la Pléiade.
Mr. Graham is Chancellor at Trinity College, University of Toronto, Chair of The Atlantic Council of Canada, Co-Vice Chair of the Canadian International Council, and Hon. LCol of the Governor General’s Horse Guards.


Josef Joffe

Josef Joffe is publisher-editor of the German weekly Die Zeit. Previously he was columnist/editorial page editor of Süddeutsche Zeitung (1985-2000).
Abroad, his essays and reviews have appeared in: New York Review of Books, New York Times Book Review, Times Literary Supplement, Commentary, New York Times Magazine, New Republic, Weekly Standard, Prospect (London), Commentaire (Paris).
His second career is in academia. In 2007, he was appointed Senior Fellow of Stanford’s Institute for International Studies (a professorial position), with which he has been affiliated since 1999. A Visiting Professor of Political Science at Stanford since 2004, he is also a Fellow of the University’s Hoover Institution. He has also taught at Harvard, Johns Hopkins and the University of Munich and was a visiting lecturer at Princeton and Dartmouth.
His most recent book is Überpower: America’s Imperial Temptation (2006, translated into German and French). His articles have appeared in Foreign Affairs, The National Interest, International Security, The American Interest and Foreign Policy as well as in professional journals in Germany, Britain and France. He is the author of The Limited Partnership: Europe, the United States and the Burdens of Alliance, The Future of International Politics: The Great Powers, and co-author of Eroding Empire: Western Relations With Eastern Europe.
Dr. Joffe is a member of the American Academy in Berlin; International University Bremen; Ben Gurion University, Israel; Goldman Sachs Foundation, New York; Aspen Institute Berlin; Leo Baeck Institute, New York; German Children and Youth Foundation, Berlin; European Advisory Board; and Hypovereinsbank, Munich (2001-2005).
He is also a member of several editorial boards: Co-Founder and Executive Committee, The American Interest, Washington; International Security, Harvard; Prospect, London; and The National Interest, Washington from 1995-2005.
Dr. Joffe is a Trustee of Atlantik-Brücke, Berlin; Deutsches Museum, Munich; and Abraham Geiger College, Berlin. He is a member of the American Council on Germany and the International Institute for Strategic Studies.
He has Honorary Degrees in Humane Letters from Swarthmore College (2002) and Lewis and Clark College (2005). He also holds the Theodor Wolff Prize (Journalism) and Ludwig Börne Prize (Essays/Literature), Germany, as well as the Federal Order of Merit, Germany.
He obtained his Ph.D. in Government from Harvard and is married to Dr. Christine Brinck Joffe, with whom he has two daughters.


Dwight Mason

Dwight N. Mason is a graduate of Brown University, and of the University of California at Berkeley. After serving as Deputy Chief of Mission and Minister at the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa, Mr. Mason retired from the Foreign Service to become a non-attorney member of the Washington law firm of Storch and Brenner where he worked from 1991 until 2002. In 1994, President Clinton appointed him to be the Chairman of the United States Section of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, Canada-United States and he remained in this role until July 2002. He is now a Senior Associate specializing in Canadian affairs at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington.
Mr. Mason was a Foreign Service Officer from 1962 until 1991. He served in Morocco, Colombia, Ecuador, the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of State, and at the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa, first as the Counselor for Political Affairs and then as Deputy Chief of Mission and Minister.
Mr. Mason is a member of the Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, the Canadian International Council and of the Advisory Council of the Network on North American Studies of the Canada–U.S. Fulbright program. He has been an American Political Science Association Congressional Fellow and a mid-career Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School of International Relations at Princeton University.




Greg Lyle

In previous years, Greg Lyle from Innovative Research Group has conducted a national poll on issues relevant to the conference topic and released the results during the conference. This year questions relating to the conference will be asked throughout the year and the results will be released periodically along with an op-ed by a CDFAI Fellow. Greg Lyle will present an overview of the results at this year’s meeting.

2009 Conference Poll (PDF)




James Appathurai, NATO Spokesman
Panel: NATO

Bio: James Appathurai has been serving as a NATO Spokesman since 2004. In this position his duties include acting as the Principle NATO Spokesman and the NATO Secretary General on all issues and handling all NATO media policy and press relations. Before assuming this role, Mr. Appathurai worked as a Deputy Head and Senior Planning Officer in NATO, a Policy Officer with DND, and as an Editorial Assistant with CBC.


Charles Doran, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of International Relations at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University
Panel: NORAD

Bio: Charles Doran is the Andrew W. Mellon Professor of International Relations at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. He is Director of the Program of Global Theory and History and chairs the Committee on International Relations. He also directs the Program of Canadian Studies. A member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he is also a Senior Associate at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC. He received the International Governor General’s Award for distinguished scholarship in Canadian Studies.


General (Ret’d) Ray Henault
Panel: NATO

Bio: General (Ret’d) Henault’s highly decorated, 40 year career with the Canadian Forces began in 1968 and included the posts of Commander of 10 Tactical Air Group, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff, and culminated, in 2001, as the Chief of the Defence Staff. In 2005 he was appointed Chairman of the NATO Military Committee in Brussels, Belgium, a position that he filled until 2008. General (Ret’d) Henault is a graduate of Canada’s National Defence College and the École supérieure de guerre aérienne (ESGA) in Paris and he is an Honorary Professor of the University of Pecs, Hungary.


George Macdonald, CFN Consultants
Panel: NORAD

Bio: LGen (Ret’d) George Macdonald joined CFN Consultants in January 2005 after serving 38 years in the Canadian Forces, culminating in the position of Vice Chief of the Defence Staff from 2001 to 2004, following three years as the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of NORAD. Throughout his career, he held many leadership positions in Ottawa, and has served with NATO forces in Germany and Norway, and with North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) in both Winnipeg and Colorado Springs, Colorado. He also held the position of Director of Operations in the Foreign and Defence Policy Secretariat in the Privy Council Office and is currently a Fellow with CDFAI. 


Alexander Moens, Simon Fraser University
Panel: NATO

Bio: Alexander Moens is a Professor of Political Science at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, a CDFAI Fellow, and a Senior Fellow at the Fraser Institute in the Centre for Canadian-American Relations. He teaches American Politics and Foreign Policy and Security and Defence Relations in North America and NATO. He is the author of The Foreign Policy of George W. Bush: Values, Strategy, Loyalty, Foreign Policy Under Carter and editor and co-editor of a number of books including Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture and NATO and European Security: Alliance Politics from the Cold War’s End to the Age of Terrorism.  


Joel Sokolsky, Royal Military College of Canada
Panel: NORAD 

Bio: Dr. Joel J. Sokolsky is Principal of the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). He is a Senior Fellow at the Queen’s University Centre for International Relations, and holds an appointment with the Queen’s Department of Political Studies. His areas of interest and teaching include Canadian foreign and defence policy, contemporary maritime strategy, international security relations and American foreign and defence policy. He has been the recipient of several scholarships and awards including two NATO Fellowships and two Fulbright Scholarships. Dr. Sokolsky has served as a consultant to several government offices and represented Canada on the Secretariat Working Group of the NATO/Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes.



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  • SuloJjuhani Joki
    commented 2024-01-31 18:26:15 -0500
    Here is a thought.
    With the USofA becoming an an unrelianle, unstable, radical and isolationist country mayybe we whould withdraw from orad and hit h our wagon to a more robust and growing NATO


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