Winter 2004 (Volume II, Issue IV)
Promoting new understanding and improvement of Canadian foreign and defence policy.
In this issue:
- Message from the President – Robert S. Millar
- CDFAI New Fellow
- Congratulations – Ross Munro Award Recipient
- Research Paper: Confusing The Innocent With Numbers And Categories: The International Policy Statement And The Concentration Of Development Assistance
- Article: Some thoughts about soldiers’ complaints and the Ombudsman - Anne Irwin
- Article: Security and North American Relationships – Reid Morden
- Article: Just the Facts, Ma’am: Measuring Canadian Multilateralism and Listening to Our Global Conscience – Frank Harvey
- About Our Organization
Message from the President - Robert S. Millar
Welcome to the Winter issue of “The Dispatch” newsletter. In this edition we introduce one new Fellow, Nelson Michaud from Laval University to our network of Canadians interested in providing informed opinion on Canadian security, defence and foreign affairs issues.
Since our last newsletter CDFAI co-sponsored, with the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies at University of Calgary, a Conference on The Special Commission on the Restructure of the Reserves, 1995: Ten Years Later from December 2-4. The Conference was well attended with each of the Chief of Maritime Staff, Chief of Land Staff and Chief of Air Staff, as well as Commander Canada Command, making prsentations.
Confusing The Innocent With Numbers And Categories: The International Policy Statement And The Concentration Of Development Assistance written by Denis Stairs and released mid-December is the last in this year’s research paper series.
The three articles in this newsletter continue the discussion on Canada’s evolving role on the international scene. The first article written by Anne Irwin is titled “Some thoughts about soldiers’ complaints and the Ombudsman.” Dr Irwin uses her PhD thesis research to situate the challenges that Yves Côté recently announced as the new Canadian Forces Ombudsman, will face.
Reid Morden has written an interesting article on “Security and North American Relationships” in which he discusses the ubiquitous nature of security in any discussions about cooperation and coordination with our North American neighbours, no matter what the subject. He discusses border security, intelligence agencies and activist foreign policies as necessary but carry a risk for Canada.
“Just the Facts, Ma’am: Measuring Canadian Multilateralism and Listening to Our Global Conscience” authored by Frank Harvey discusses the Global Partnership Program Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (GPP) and one of the most serious security threats facing our world today. Dr Harvey moves behind the rhetoric of the recently released DFAIT report on this subject and analyzes Canada’s performance.
As 2005 draws to a close and the Federal election is underway, all of us at CDFAI, wish all of you our readers, a Merry Christmas and a Happy and prosperous New Year. These are challenging times for Canada and there is so much that this country can and should do.
Enjoy this newsletter; if you have any comments please contact us.
CDFAI New Fellow
|Nelson Michaud (Ph.D. Laval) is Associate professor of Political Science and International Relations, Chair of Laboratoire d’étude sur les politiques publiques et la mondialisation (LEPPM) et and Chair of the Groupe d’études, de recherche et de formation internationales (Gerfi) at the École nationale d’administration publique; he is Researcher-Member of the Institut québécois des Hautes Études Internationales, Associate Researcher at the Centre d’études interaméricaines and Research fellow at the Centre for foreign policy studies (Dalhousie University). He has taught at Dalhousie and Laval Universities and has been invited as a guest professor at the Canadian Royal Military College.|
2005 - Ross Munro Media Award Recipient: Bruce Campion-Smith The Conference of Defence Associations Institute (CDAI) and the Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute (CDFAI) are pleased to announce that Bruce Campion-Smith has been selected as the recipient of the 2005 Ross Munro Award.
Click here for more information.
Confusing The Innocent With Numbers And Categories: The International Policy Statement And The Concentration Of Development Assistance.
On December 15, 2005, Dr. Denis Stairs’ paper entitled: Confusing The Innocent With Numbers And Categories: The International Policy Statement And The Concentration Of Development Assistance was released. In April the federal government presented Canadians with an International Policy Statement (IPS) that the government said would bring greater strategic focus to Canada’s development assistance. In his paper released today for CDFAI, Dr. Stairs concludes the IPS has changed almost nothing with respect to development assistance. The complete paper is available online at www.cdfai.org.
Click here to dowload the full-length paper in PDF format.
This is the final research paper for 2005. A similar series of papers will be released in 2006.
Just the Facts, Ma’am: Measuring Canadian Multilateralism And Listening to Our Global Conscience
by Frank Harvey
The International Policy Statement (IPS) was not the only major document to be released by the Canadian Government in 2005. Shortly after the IPS hit the streets Foreign Affairs Minister Pierre Pettigrew released the inaugural Annual Report of Canada’s contribution to the Global Partnership Program Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (GPP).1
Since proposing the program in 2002 at the G8 meeting in Kananaskis, Alberta, the Canadian government has consistently highlighted the Global Partnership as a key foreign policy priority, for a very good reason – the program deals with “one of the most serious security threats facing our world today.”2 The report goes on to point out that the GPP constitutes “a new generation of funded mechanisms that deliver policy through direct project implementation….Together, they respond to the priorities set out in Canada’s International Policy Statement issued in April 2005 and offer a vibrant reminder that Canada has an important role to play in international affairs.” In others words, the GPP encompasses a prime example of the specific programs, projects and actual funding priorities that put the words of the IPS into practice. As Pettigrew (2005: 1) correctly points in his introductory remarks, “making such a commitment is one thing; making good on it is another,” and he invites all Canadians “to read this report and take pride in how we are meeting our international responsibilities.”3
I accept the invitation and offer the following report card on Canada’s performance. I will leave it to others to decide how proud Canadians should be.
Comparing Multilateral Commitments
Figure 1 compares country pledges, commitments and spending since 2002 (all funds are in Canadian currency).4 From the point of view of measuring real investments (as distinct from promises), pledges are not as relevant as commitments, and commitments, in turn, are less relevant than actual spending. Arguably the most relevant measure of a state’s priorities emerges from Figure 2 -- the proportion of a country’s ‘commitment’ that remains ‘unspent’. France and Italy deserve special mention here for spending nothing on GPP programs during the three year reporting period – 100% of committed funds remain unspent. However, among G8 members who have expressed at least some serious interest in dealing with the global threat of proliferation, Canada ranks third, behind France and Italy, in its failure to spend a large portion of the money committed to GPP projects -- 76% of committed funds remain unspent. A third place finish in this category is particularly noteworthy in view of the repeated references to the GPP in the International Policy Statement, in Canada’s National Security Policy, and in almost every major speech by a Canadian official on the issue of non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament since 2002.
Why has it been so difficult for Canada to find and fund projects worthy of any portion of the remaining $276,049,600 the government committed to help deal with “one of the most serious security threats facing our world today”? Ottawa’s reluctance to live up to its multilateral commitments is even more puzzling considering the fact that other GPP participants managed in the same period to find and fund projects totalling $3,724,771,737 -- roughly 13.5 times the amount Canada is having a hard time spending (Figure 3).
With these facts in mind, the following excerpts from the International Policy Statement can now be placed in their proper context:
The Prime Minister and other senior government officials have an even more important “responsibility to be honest,” as Kim Nossal concludes in his excellent contribution to the 2005 CDFAI report on Canada’s International Policy Statement.x If Canada has such a hard time meeting commitments to a policy initiative it considers a priority, one has to wonder how well the government is doing with other ‘important’ policy initiatives (Kyoto benchmarks, foreign aid, AIDS in Africa, our Responsibility to Protect the people of Darfur, etc.).
Perhaps the most relevant numbers to emerge from a comparative assessment of GPP contributions is the fact that American investments account for 72% of all spending to date, compared with 25.7% from everyone else, and 2.3% from Canada (Figure 4). Despite having a GDP that is only 11 times larger than Canada’s, the U.S. has spent almost 31 times more on GPP initiatives. Germany’s GDP is about 2.3 times Canada’s yet it has spent almost 4 times as much. Conversely, Canada’s GDP is about 5.6 times that of Norway’s but Ottawa has spent only about 1.8 times more on GPP projects.
Canadian officials repeatedly claim to be among the world’s staunchest defenders of multilateralism, but they obviously have something very important to learn from the world’s most criticised unilateralist about how to make meaningful and honest contributions to multilateral security.
About Our Organization
An investment in CDFAI is an investment in Canada.
CDFAI or the Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute is a unique charitable organization, headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. It is the largest Canadian non-governmental organization dedicated solely to studying and providing policy recommendations on Canadian defence, security and foreign affairs issues.
Canadians depend on and support a world that is politically free and open. Both Canadian values and Canadian interests are served by the free flow of people, goods, and ideas across international boundaries. Such a world requires a strong Canadian diplomatic presence, effective security and adequate military capacity. CDFAI is dedicated to educating the Canadian public about the importance of these issues.
An investment in CDFAI is an investment in Canadians.
CDFAI’s goal is to elevate Canada’s international stature.
By developing and sponsoring authoritative research and education programs, CDFAI provides Canadians with factual and comprehensive policy analysis regarding Canada's foreign policy and the state of our military preparedness and national security.
An investment in CDFAI is good for business and the Canadian economy.
An investment in CDFAI will help maintain a properly funded research institute that can influence the making of defence and foreign policy decisions in Canada. CDFAI will help to strengthen Canada’s capacity to participate on the international stage.
"There is a connection between a democratic and prosperous Canada and an active and engaged Canadian foreign policy. Let us refer to this as “Canada’s necessary international connection.” From the earliest colonial days to the present, Canada’s small population base has made it imperative for Canada to trade abroad in order to achieve a high standard of living. Canada has also required substantial inflows of immigrants to build its population base and it has always needed access not only to international markets, but also ideas."
David Bercuson, eminent historian, noted Canadian author and Director of Programs with CDFAI.
Research and Publications
- Research Papers
- Updates on the Department of National Defence
- University Press Series
- National Conferences
- Speaker Series
- Canadian Military Journalism Course
- Graduate Student Symposium
- Ross Munro Media Award
- Journal of Military and Strategic Studies
- Ross Ellis Lecture in Military and Strategic Studies
- Quarterly newsletters
During its brief four-year history CDFAI has witnessed reforms to military policy, increases in defence spending and increased interest in Canadian foreign policy.
CDFAI’s financial goal for 2005 is to raise $1 million. The cost of fund development is 10 percent of it’s goal.
CDFAI provides Canadians with factual and comprehensive policy analysis to promote their understanding of Canada’s foreign policy and the state of our military preparedness and national security by developing and sponsoring authoritative research and education programs.
Founded in 2001 and headquartered in Calgary, CDFAI is a non-profit, charitable research and education institute.
If you would like to be included on our regular mailing regarding conferences, lectures and newsletters, please send your particulars to [email protected] or sign up for our mailing list at www.cdfai.org. All email addresses gathered by CDFAI are kept confidential as we do not release or sell any information collected from the public to any third party without explicit permission to do so.
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