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A Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations 1925-2019

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Image credit: Daniel Joseph Petty/Pexels

BOOK

by Linwood DeLong
January 2020

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Table of Contents


Introduction

Much has changed since A Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations 1925-1983 was first published in 1985.  The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia no longer exist. New states have emerged not only in Europe, but also in Africa.  Canada quickly established diplomatic relations with the member states of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia after their respective dissolutions.  In 2003, Canada recognized Eritrea as a separate state and in July 2011, Canada recognized the new state of South Sudan. 

Finding the date of Canadian diplomatic recognition of a given country or state, the date when diplomatic relations were established with Canada and the date when the first Canadian ambassador or high commissioner took office continues to be a challenge.  The print publication, Canadian Heads of Post Abroad 1880-1989, issued by External Affairs and International Trade Canada in 1991, is an excellent source of information, but it is limited by its publication date.  A similar online source, Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad Since 1880 (http://w03.international.gc.ca/headsofpost/searchhp-recherchecm.aspx) provides some information specifically pertaining to heads of posts for Canadian diplomatic missions abroad, but it does not always provide information about the date of diplomatic recognition of any given state.  In many cases, only the recent information, rather than the historical information concerning the first diplomatic recognition or the date of establishment of diplomatic relations, is provided.

Other important sources of information include Canadian Representatives Abroad, the annual reports or annual reviews of the Department of External Affairs (now known as Global Affairs Canada), the External Affairs communiqués and press releases, the publication called External Affairs (which was issued from 1949-1971) and its successor, International Perspectives (published from 1980 to 1991). 

In this most recent edition of A Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations, the following information (if it could be determined) is included for each country: the date of diplomatic recognition, the date that diplomatic relations were first established and the date when the first diplomatic mission was opened (frequently, a legation staffed by a diplomatic representative of lower rank than an ambassador or high commissioner). It also includes the date when the Canadian ambassador or high commissioner first presented his/her credentials and the diplomatic mission officially became an embassy or a high commission.   In those few instances where diplomatic relations between Canada and another state were severed, this date, as well as the date when diplomatic relations were re-established, is also provided.

It is hoped that this new version of A Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations will provide not only the above-mentioned dates, but will also indicate useful primary sources that can be used to verify the information provided and to make it possible to explore the diplomatic relations between Canada and a given state in greater detail.   The online catalogue of the Jules Léger Library of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, in particular the DFATD Digital Library (http://dfait-aeci.canadiana.ca/) contains a wealth of information, including a very large number of digitized versions of press releases, communiqués, official statements and digitized versions of the publication External Affairs and Canadian Representatives Abroad.  In some instances, Global Affairs Canada has prepared fact sheets pertaining to the diplomatic and economic relations between Canada and another country.   These can be searched using an interface at the following website:

http://www.international.gc.ca/library-bibliotheque/catalogue.aspx

Unlike the previous guide, this one also includes information about Canada’s membership in those international organizations to which Canada sends some form of diplomatic representative, in particular the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

I would like to thank the staff at Global Affairs Canada, in particular Fiona Scannell and Mary Halloran, but also the library staff, for their valuable assistance with my research on this publication.  My thanks also to Prof. Allen Mills, University of Winnipeg, for helpful comments concerning the introduction to this book.

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What is Diplomatic Recognition?

In its most basic form, diplomatic recognition is essentially a declaration by one state that it takes note of another state’s existence.1  Recognizing a state means acknowledging its right to exist and respecting its territorial boundaries.  Recognition can be de facto, a tacit recognition, often expressed through trade agreements, that a state exists, or it can be de jure, an official statement of recognition.  Between 1940 and 1991, Canada recognized, de facto, that several Baltic states had been incorporated into the Soviet Union, but it did not accept that they were legally a part of the Soviet Union. De jure recognition of this incorporation was withheld.2 

Although one might think that membership in the United Nations General Assembly is the criterion for a state officially existing as a state, there is currently no formal law or treaty that sets out this “statehood”.  According to the Montevideo Convention of 1933, a territory must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government and the capacity to enter into relations with other states, in order to be defined as a state.3  However, according to current practice, a country only becomes a member of the UN General Assembly when a two-thirds majority of member states agrees to its membership as a separate state.  Territories such as Palestine can have non-member observer status at the UN without being members of the General Assembly.  According to UN resolution 1514 (1960), any attempt at the partial or total disruption of the national unity or territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principle of the United Nations Charter.  An ex-colony cannot lose territory against its will.4

Neither the UN nor Canada has recognized the unilateral separatist drives that resulted in self-proclaimed entities such as the Republic of South Ossetia, the Republic of Abkhazia, the Transdniestrian Moldavian Republic, the Republic of Gagauzia, the Republic of Crimea, the Republic of Chechnya and the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, but Canada did recognize the Republic of Kosovo, even though it is not a UN member.5  Against the vigorous objections of Russia and Serbia, but in keeping with the policy put forth by the United States and followed by many Western nations, Kosovo was regarded as a special case in which its claim to be an independent state was recognized, even though it was breaking off from the internationally recognized Republic of Serbia.6

In the House of Commons Debates of 1964 (II: 1714), Paul Martin made the distinction between recognition of a state and recognition of a government.  Recognizing a state means acknowledging its right to exist and respecting its territorial boundaries. Thus, as a UN member, Canada recognized the existence of Mongolia and Albania in the 1960s, but did not establish diplomatic ties with either state at that time.

Recognizing a government means acknowledging it as the legitimate and effective government of a state.  Canada’s official criteria for formally recognizing the governments of other states follow closely the guidelines set forth in 1947 by Hersch Lauterpacht in his Recognition in International Law.7  Lauterpacht’s criteria, as cited in the House of Commons Debates (1950, I: 460), are as follows:

  1. Recognition is a declaration of an existing fact. Whenever the requisite conditions of governmental capacity exist recognition is due as a matter of right.
  2. International law prohibits premature recognition of the revolutionary government. So long as the lawful government has a reasonable prospect of reasserting its authority, recognition is an unfriendly act and a violation of international law …  On the other hand, “to maintain that the lawful government holding out in one isolated fortress is entitled to continued recognition de jure is to strain to breaking point an otherwise unimpeachable rule.”
  3. There is, finally, the question of the willingness to fulfil international obligations and of assurances to be given to that effect by the government recognition of which is under consideration.

Canada’s reasons for establishing diplomatic relations with, and diplomatic missions in, other countries are complex. As the protracted debates concerning the establishing of diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China show, one must consider the potential for trade with another country, the likelihood of emigration from that country, the status that is conveyed to the host country by establishing a mission and of course, the potential reaction in the international community if diplomatic relations are established. 

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The Beginnings of Canadian Diplomatic Relations

Several important monographs exist which discuss the history of Canadian diplomatic relations, especially the events surrounding the opening of the first Canadian diplomatic mission in Washington, in 1927.8   Until 1931 (the Statute of Westminster), the Dominion of Canada’s foreign relations were constitutionally and legally those of the United Kingdom.  Even though Canada had signed the Treaty of Versailles and was a member of the League of Nations, both attributes of national sovereignty, diplomatic relations established by the U.K. were assumed or “inherited” by Canada when she became fully and formally independent. Canada’s immediate break with the Soviet Union, when Britain terminated diplomatic relations with the U.S.S.R. in 1927, and the rapidity with which Canada-Soviet relations were re-established when Britain resumed diplomatic relations9 were an automatic result of the constitutional relationship between Canada and the U.K.

After lengthy negotiations between Canada and the South African government, it was decided in 1938 that the South African representative to Canada would be an “accredited representative” (South Africa objected to the designation of “high commissioner”) who would have the privileges and status of a high commissioner and in 1939, that Canada would send a high commissioner to South Africa.  This was a key step in a process whereby members of the Commonwealth could exchange official diplomatic representatives among each other who would have the same diplomatic status as the British high commissioner.  Previously, it was understood that the British high commissioner enjoyed a higher diplomatic position in a Commonwealth country than other high commissioners; ambassadors enjoyed higher status than high commissioners.  By 1946, when Canada had established high commissions to South Africa, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, high commissioners had been fully assimilated into the structure of the diplomatic corps.10

In the period up to the Second World War, several Canadian politicians argued against the practice of Canada forging a diplomatic strategy independent from that of Great Britain (Debates, 1928, I: 27-29; 1941, I: 1009-1014).  The Balfour Declaration of 1926, which emanated from the Imperial Conference of the same year, stated that the Dominions are “autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs … ”11  The autonomous status of the Dominion of Canada, however, as set forth in the Balfour Declaration, did not affect the role of the British sovereign as Canada’s head of state.  Although the Statute of Westminster legitimized Canada’s status as a sovereign state and although the governor general of Canada was empowered, in 1947, “to exercise all powers and authorities belonging to the Sovereign of Canada”,12  the letters accrediting and recalling Canadian diplomatic representatives abroad were actually signed by the British sovereign, acting in right of Canada as Canadian head of state.

It was not until Jan. 1, 1978 that the governor general of Canada, with the Queen’s approval, was authorized to sign letters of credence and recall for Canadian ambassadors, and letters of commission and recall for Canadian high commissioners to countries of which the Queen is not the head of state. High commissioners from countries of which the Queen is the head of state are accredited by letters of introduction from prime minister to prime minister. 13

A further vestige of the traditionally close links between Canada and Great Britain is the distinction that is made between “embassy” and “high commission”.  Speaking in the House of Commons on June 21, 1948, then-minister of External Affairs Louis St. Laurent explained:

The high commissioners are not representatives of what we would term “foreign countries”; they are representatives of countries of the commonwealth and have not the rank of ambassadors.  Ambassadors are accredited by the head of a state to the head of a state.  Ambassadors or ministers in Canada are accredited to His Majesty the King by the heads of the states they represent.  The way the constitution has developed, His Majesty the King would as King of England be accrediting a high commissioner to His Majesty as King of Canada.   It is not done.  The high commissioner represents the government of the United Kingdom and is accredited to the government of Canada, not to His Majesty the King. (Debates, 1948, VI: 5619)

In fact, Canadian high commissioners have carried out diplomatic functions since 1880 (Debates, 1926-27, II: 2465-2466).  The specific problem of status that MP Jean-François Pouliot addressed was alleviated somewhat when, in 1944, the Canadian government decided to elevate the rank of several foreign posts from legation to embassy, in keeping with current practice (Debates, 1944, VI: 5917-18).   Pouliot had complained:

The Prime Minister should see to it that the status of our relations abroad is raised so that our ministers will not be considered by the powers there as country cousins. It is a great humiliation to me to hear that Mr. Massey [the Canadian high commissioner] has not the right to speak officially with any ambassador or minister of any other country except through the medium of the dominions office. (Debates, 1940, III: 2538)

This anomaly was further eased in the early 1960s.  The British sovereign’s new status as “head of the Commonwealth” opened the way for pressure from the newly independent African Commonwealth countries to obtain the equivalent of ambassadorial status for their high commissioners.  The sovereign continued her role as chief of state of the older Commonwealth countries.

Therefore, Canada still observes the distinction between high commission (to Commonwealth countries) and embassy (to all other countries), as a glance at the list of Canadian diplomatic posts abroad in the annual reports of the Department of External Affairs reveals.  Furthermore, Canada extends diplomatic recognition to newly independent Commonwealth countries almost automatically, except in unusual circumstances (Debates, 1964, II: 1714), but does not follow this practice with other newly independent states. 

There is now an established protocol for receiving a high commission from another state of the Commonwealth.  Instead of presenting letters of credence from the head of state (frequently the Queen), high commissioners present letters of introduction from their prime ministers.  An informal luncheon with the governor general (reflecting the special Commonwealth relationship) replaces the formal meeting of the newly accredited ambassadors and the governor general that would otherwise follow the presentation-of-credentials ceremony.  In the list that follows, therefore, the date when the first Canadian high commissioner arrived in a country is used as the date on which a Canadian high commission is considered to be officially established.

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Canadian Diplomatic Relations after 1939

Notwithstanding the diplomatic turmoil that prevailed during the Second World War, a fair number of new diplomatic missions were established or else formally announced in that period.   In 1939, Canada had five missions in foreign countries.  By the end of the war, the number had risen to 22, excluding the military mission to the Allied Control Commission in Germany and the Canadian consulates in New York, Lisbon and Greenland.  These new missions included high commissions in the major Commonwealth countries as well as embassies in Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia, China, the Soviet Union and Chile.  No new diplomatic missions were established in continental Europe during the war, however.  Canada retained its missions in the Netherlands, Belgium and France until each of these was forced to evacuate and re-establish itself elsewhere (Debates, 1941, I: 814).  A brief description of these “relocations”, in particular the establishing of an envoy extraordinary in London who was responsible for the governments-in-exile of numerous European countries, has been included in the list of countries that follows.

Canada did not terminate its diplomatic relations with South Africa, in spite of its condemnation of the South African apartheid policy, but in 1966 Canada did join other UN member countries in declaring the South African mandate over Namibia to be terminated, because South Africa had forfeited the moral and legal right to continue this mandate. In 1971, Canada informed South Africa that it no longer recognized the latter’s jurisdiction over Namibia.14  Canada recognized Namibia when it became independent on March 21, 1990.

Canada’s decision to establish formal diplomatic relations with the Holy See (the Vatican), which had been first contemplated in 1963, was carried out in 1969, despite vigorous objections from segments of the Canadian Protestant community and only lukewarm support from the Canadian Roman Catholic community.  The move to establish these relations gave Canada contact with a very small state with a worldwide presence and a valuable source of grassroots information on international issues.15

In the postwar period, new Canadian diplomatic missions have tended to be established in successive geographic areas, rather than simultaneously in diverse parts of the globe.  First was South and Central America.  By October 1952, Canada had nine embassies there.  Later, the focus shifted to Southeast Asia, to Africa and the Middle East (in the 1960s), to the Pacific (in the 1970s), and more recently to the smaller states of the Middle East and the independent states that emerged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.

In keeping with a policy of only recognizing legitimate governments of newly independent states, former prime minister Lester Pearson stated on July 17, 1964 that Canada would not recognize the validity of Rhodesia’s unilateral declaration of independence.16  Rhodesia was granted diplomatic recognition only when it became independent Zimbabwe on April 18, 1980.

Consistent with its policy of not interfering in the political affairs of other nations, Canada refused to offer diplomatic recognition to the self-proclaimed Republic of Biafra in 1968, but did offer humanitarian assistance to the people of that region of Nigeria.17

In a document titled Foreign Policy for Canadians18 published in 1970, the government indicated that it planned to establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. It was considering the extension of diplomatic links by means of dual accreditation in those countries offering adequate scope for increased trade, investment, development assistance, and useful political and cultural contacts.  The government also indicated that it had a growing interest in developing its relations with the Communist countries of Eastern Europe, that it was concerned about the growing Communist power and influence in Southeast Asia, that it foresaw the likelihood of heightening tensions and risks of conflict in Africa and increased activity in Africa by liberation movements.

Although Canada established diplomatic missions to many member countries of the Warsaw Pact shortly after the Iron Curtain became established (Bulgaria,1966; Czechoslovakia, 1965; Hungary, 1965; Poland, 1960; Romania, 1967) Canada did not establish formal diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic (DDR) until 1975.  The decision to establish diplomatic relations with the DDR came at a time when the Federal Republic of Germany was itself moving toward a de facto diplomatic recognition of the DDR and after countries such as Great Britain and the United States had also extended diplomatic recognition to the DDR (Great Britain, 1973; Federal Republic of Germany, 1972; United States, 1974).  Previously, Western countries had refrained from formal diplomatic relations with the DDR because of the so-called Hallstein doctrine, which was understood to mean that the Federal Republic of Germany would not maintain diplomatic relations with countries that formally recognized the DDR as a legitimate state.19

The Canadian decision to establish formal diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China (1970) and to regard the PRC as the sole diplomatic representative of China at the UN took place long after Great Britain had extended de facto (1949) and de jure (1950) diplomatic recognition to the PRC and had established formal diplomatic relations,20  but before the PRC became a full-fledged UN member (1971).  Canadian diplomatic recognition of the PRC took place nine years before the U.S. decided to extend formal diplomatic recognition and to establish diplomatic relations, however.

Frequently, Canada’s bicultural nature has affected the manner in which it has perceived its diplomatic ties.  This is easily documented in Africa where, for many years, the Department of External Affairs’ annual reports focused on anglophone and francophone countries and Dominion Bureau of Statistics publications gave statistics for anglophone countries, francophone countries and “other”.

A glance at the table “Distribution of Canadian Posts and Personnel by Geographical Region 1980-1981” in the External Affairs Annual Review of 1980 shows that the 119 diplomatic posts and offices cover a territory much wider than the former British and French colonies.  In spite of ideological differences, Canada maintains diplomatic relations with virtually all states of South America, Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East.

The political instability in some of these regions and the unsystematic manner in which changes in relations are announced means that keeping up to date on the exact status of these relations will always be a challenge. It is hoped that the following list will prove useful to both the political scientist and the interested layperson.

In a policy planning staff paper, “Diplomatic Recognition in an Inter-dependent World: Emerging Themes”,21 published in 1991, the authors question the usefulness of diplomatic recognition as a concept. They argue that it is based on the concept of sovereign nation states and that the international community is moving into a “post nation-state” world in which power is diffused beyond and beneath nation states.    In the new framework of international relations, there would be no recognition of governments or states per se but rather recognition of the authority of governments to act as international entities in areas where their authority could be demonstrated.   The authors point to the importance of larger economic groups such as the European Economic Community, the North American Free Trade Association or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, which also have trappings of political power, as well as the numerous instances in which individual Canadian provinces establish forms of political relations with international organizations.  The authors note that Canada frequently has contacts with liberation groups or “governments-in-exile” without recognizing them as the sole legitimate representative of a state.   It is also noted that Canadian representatives sit at the same diplomatic tables as entities that Canada does not recognize and that Canada signs treaties that emerge from multilateral conferences without necessarily formally recognizing the participants of these conferences.   Since the publication of this staff paper, Canada has extended diplomatic recognition to numerous newly independent states.  It remains to be seen whether formal diplomatic recognition will indeed give way to the pragmatic approach that this staff paper advocates or whether traditional understandings of diplomatic recognition of newly created states will continue to be government policy.

A foreign policy document issued in 2005, Canada’s International Policy Statement: A Role of Pride and Influence in the World: Diplomacy, notes that Canada has bilateral missions, consulates and satellites in 113 countries and eight multilateral missions.22  There are no statements specifically about diplomatic recognition but the government expresses its desire to open an embassy in Iraq as soon as possible.  The document reaffirms Canada’s role in international organizations such as the Organization of American States, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth, La Francophonie and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It expresses concern about fragile states and failed states, it affirms that diplomacy continues to rest primarily on state-to-state relations and multilateral negotiations, and expresses confidence that Canada will continue to build on decades of strong intergovernmental co-operation in international relations. 

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Abbreviations and Explanations

Canadian diplomatic missions are, generally speaking, of three types:

Legation – a preliminary diplomatic mission headed by a chargé d’affaires or someone with a lower diplomatic rank than an ambassador or high commissioner.  When formal diplomatic relations are established, the legation is upgraded to the status of a high commission or an embassy.

High commission – a full-fledged diplomatic mission, headed by a high commissioner, to a country that is a member of the Commonwealth.

Embassy – a full-fledged diplomatic mission, headed by an ambassador, to a country that is not a member of the Commonwealth.

In general, the form of the name for each country is that found in bold-faced type in the most recent edition of Canadian Representatives Abroad where that country is listed.  Otherwise, the form of name found in External Affairs’ annual reports or annual reviews has been used.  “See” references are provided for changes in the official name of an already independent state and from names of former colonies to their post-colonial names. 

Most of the information presented below was drawn from official publications of the Canadian Department of External Affairs (now External Affairs and International Trade Canada).   In those publications, references to the establishing of a high commission or embassy are sometimes to the date when the office was formally occupied, rather than the date when the head of the mission presented his/her credentials.  Some additional information was taken from the department’s internal working documents.  The dates used in these documents are based on correspondence between Canadian heads of mission and Ottawa.  This can result, therefore, in minor differences concerning the date on which a diplomatic mission is recorded as officially established.  In such cases, the information drawn from the working documents is given first, in square brackets, together with an asterisk, and is followed by the information found in the published source that is cited.

In keeping with Commonwealth diplomatic practice, it has been assumed that Canada accorded diplomatic recognition to Commonwealth states when they became independent.  Where this fact was not explicitly stated in External Affairs publications, it has been included, but placed in square brackets with no asterisk.

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End Notes

1 Policy Planning Staff, “Diplomatic Recognition in an Inter-Dependent World: Emerging Themes,” Policy Planning Staff Paper no. 91/6 External Affairs and International Trade Canada (December 1991): 2.

2 “Diplomatic Recognition in an Interdependent World”: 3.

3 Courtney Brooks, “Making a State a State,” World Policy Journal 30.1 (2013): 24.

4 Mikulas Fabry. “Contemporary Practice of State Recognition: Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and their Aftermath,” Nationalities Papers 40.5 (September 2012): 663   

5 Ibid., 666-667.

6 Ibid., 666.

7 Hersch Lauterpacht, Recognition in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1947).

8 G.P. de T. Glazebrook, A History of Canadian External Relations. rev. ed. 2 vols. (Toronto:  McClelland and Stewart, 1966); see also Barry R. Farrell, The Making of Canadian Foreign Policy (Scarborough: Prentice-Hall of Canada, 1969).

9 Aloysius Balawyder, Canadian-Soviet Relations between the World Wars (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972): 82-117.

10 Brian Douglas Tennyson, Canadian Relations with South Africa (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982): 87-91.

11 C.P. Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict: A History of Canadian External Policies, v. 2: 1921-1948:  The Mackenzie King Era (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981): 86.

12 Canada, Office of the Prime Minister, “Additions to the Governor General’s Function,”  Communiqué (Dec. 30, 1977): 30.

13 Canada, Dept. of External Affairs, “Accreditation of Ambassadors, and High Commissioners,” Circular Document Admin no. 52/79 (COS): 1

14 External Affairs 23 (1971): 49; E.A. Annual Report 1971: 11, 61; International Perspectives January/February 1972: 45; Canadian Relations with South Africa: 181.

15 Frederick J. McEvoy, “The Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between Canada and the Vatican, 1969,” CCHA, Historical Studies 68 (2002): 66-84.

16 External Affairs 17 (1965): 201, 534; External Affairs 18 (1966): 224, 294, 295, 420, 557.

17 E.A. “Statements and Speeches” no. 68/19 (Nov. 26, 1968); no. 68/20 (Nov. 26, 1968); External Affairs 20 (1968): 448-453.

18 Foreign Policy for Canadians, Ottawa: Dept. of External Affairs, 1970.

19 Michael Shea, “Canada and East Germany,” International Perspectives, July/August 1986: 9-11.

20 R. Ovendale, “Britain, the United States and the Recognition of Communist China,” The Historical Journal 26.1 (1983): 147, 153.

21 “Diplomatic Recognition in an Inter-Dependent World: Emerging Themes.”

22 Foreign Affairs Canada, Canada’s International Policy Statement: A Role of Pride and Influence in the World: Diplomacy (Ottawa: Foreign Affairs Canada) p. 29.

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Select Bibliography

Andrew, Arthur. 1993. The Rise and Fall of a Middle Power: Canadian Diplomacy from King to Mulroney.  Toronto: J. Lorimer.

Balawyder, Aloysius. 1972. Canadian-Soviet Relations between the World Wars. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Barry, Donald. 2014. Fishing for a Solution: Canada’s Fisheries Relations with the European Union, 1977-2013. Calgary: University of Calgary Press.

Berger, Stefan and Darren G. Lilleker. 2002. “The British Labour Party and the German Democratic Republic During the Era of Non-Recognition, 1949-1973.” The Historical Journal 45.2 (June): 433-458.

Berger, Stefan and Norman LaPorte. 2006. “Ostpolitik before Ostpolitik: The British Labour Party and the German Democratic Republic (GDR), 1955-64.” European History Quarterly 36: 396-419.

Bothwell, Robert and Jean Daudelin eds. 2009. Canada among Nations 2008: 100 Years of Canadian Foreign Policy. Montreal: Published for the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University, in co-operation with The Centre for International Governance Innovation by McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Brooks, Courtney. 2013. “Making a State a State.” World Policy Journal 30.1: 24.

Canada. Dept. of External Affairs. “Accreditation of Ambassadors, and High Commissioners.” Circular Document Admin no. 52/79 (COS).

Canada. Office of the Prime Minister. 1977.  “Additions to the Governor General’s Function.” Communiqué (Dec. 30).

Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad Since 1880. Available at http://w03.international.gc.ca/headsofpost/searchhp-recherchecm.aspx)

Cohen, Andrew. 2003. While Canada Slept: How We Lost Our Place in the World. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Copithorne, M.D. 1975. “The Settlement of International Claims between Canada and China: A Status Report.” Pacific Affairs 48.2 (Summer): 230-237.

Evans, Paul M. 2014. Engaging China: Myth, Aspiration, and Strategy in Canadian Policy from Trudeau to Harper. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

External Affairs and International Trade Canada. Policy Planning Staff. 1991. “Diplomatic Recognition in an Inter-Dependent World:  Emerging Themes.” Policy Planning Staff Paper no. 91/6 (December).

Fabry, Mikulas. 2012. “Contemporary Practice of State Recognition: Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and their Aftermath.” Nationalities Papers 40.5 (September): 663.   

Farrell, R. Barry. 1969. The Making of Canadian Foreign Policy. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall of Canada.

Foreign Affairs Canada. 2005. Canada’s International Policy Statement: A Role of Pride and Influence in the World.  5 vols. Ottawa: Foreign Affairs Canada.

Galbraith, John S. 1951. The Establishment of Canadian Diplomatic Status at Washington. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Glazebrook G.P. de T. 1966. A History of Canadian External Relations. Rev. ed. 2 vols. Toronto:  McClelland and Stewart.

Godefroy, Andrew. 2010. “Canada’s International Policy Statement Five Years Later.” Calgary: Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute (November).

Head, Ivan L. 1994. Canada 21: Canada and Common Security in the Twenty-first Century. Toronto: Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto.

Holmes, John W. 1982. Life with Uncle: The Canadian-American Relationship. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Howell, Colin D. 1982. Canada and the Wider World: Ongoing External Influences in Canadian Development. Halifax, NS: Lighthouse Publications of the Atlantic Institute of Education.

Kay, Zachariah. 2010. The Diplomacy of Impartiality: Canada and Israel, 1958-1968. Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press.      

McEvoy, Frederick J. 2002. “The Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between Canada and the Vatican, 1969.” CCHA, Historical Studies 68: 66-84.

Ovendale, R. 1983. “Britain, the United States and the Recognition of Communist China.” The Historical Journal 26.1: 139-158.

Peterson, M.J. 1983. “Recognition of Governments Should Not be Abolished.” The American Journal of International Law 77.1 (January): 31-50.

Quo, F.Q. and Akira Ichikawa. 1972. “Sino-Canadian Relations: A New Chapter.” Asian Survey 12.5 (May): 386-398.

Royal Commission on Conditions of Foreign Service. 1981. Pamela McDougall, Commissioner. Ottawa:  Minister of Supply and Services.

Sarty, Leigh. 1991. Detente, Cold War, and Perestroika: Canadian-Soviet Relations Since 1980. Ottawa: Centre for Canadian-Soviet Studies.

Shea, Michael. 1986. “Canada and East Germany.” International Perspectives (July/August): 9-11.

Skilling, H. Gordon. 1945. Canadian Representation Abroad: From Agency to Embassy. Toronto: Ryerson.

Stacey, C.P. 1981. Canada and the Age of Conflict: A History of Canadian External Policies, v. 2: 1921-1948:  The Mackenzie King Era. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Tennyson, Brian Douglas.  1982. Canadian Relations with South Africa. Washington, DC: University Press of America.

Thibault, J.E. and Cheryl Moreau (compilers). 1991. Canadian Heads of Post Abroad: 1880-1989. Ottawa: External Affairs and International Trade Canada, International Cultural Relations Bureau, Academic Relations Division, Historical Section.

Thordarson, Bruce. 1974. Lester Pearson: Diplomat and Politician. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Watts, Carl Peter. 2012. Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence: An International History. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Country Listings

Afghanistan
Diplomatic relations established in 1968
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. [1]
Ambassador appointed March 21, 1968
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. [1]
Credentials presented July 17, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. [1]
External Affairs 22 (1970), p. 240              
“Diplomatic relations were severed after Canada’s refusal to recognize the new government of Afghanistan as legitimate. This government took power in December 1979.”
E.A. Communiqué no. 109, 1979; E.A. Annual Review, p. 66; 1980, pp. 50-51;
“Diplomatic relations between Canada and Afghanistan were restored on Jan. 22, 2002.”
Canadian ambassador appointed July 31, 2003; embassy established Aug. 6, 2003
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 6 (Jan. 25, 2003) and no. 110 (Aug. 6, 2003)

Albania
Diplomatic recognition with no public announcement [March 22, 1965]*
Diplomatic relations established Sept. 10, 1987
Dept. of External Affairs Communiqué no. 173 (Sept. 10, 1987)
Ambassador appointed Oct. 15, 1987
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 2
Dept. of External Affairs Communiqué no. 200 (Oct. 16, 1987)
Credentials presented April 8, 1988
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 2.
Canadian Government Office established:  Nov. 17, 1999 
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 248 (Nov. 16, 1999)

Algeria
Diplomatic recognition of the Algerian regime July 3, 1962.
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 377
Ambassador appointed Oct. 18, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 3.
Embassy to Algeria established in Yugoslavia [12]* November 1965
E.A. Annual Report, 1965, p. 3
Credentials presented Nov. 12, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 3.
Embassy established in Algeria, Nov. 26, 1971
E.A. Annual Report, 1971, p. 5
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 3.

Andorra
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 14, 1996
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 18 (Feb. 14, 1996)
Ambassador appointed March 12, 1996
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Angola
Diplomatic recognition Feb. 18, 1976
E.A. Communiqué no. 14, 1976
See also E.A. Communiqué no. 23 (April 11, 1975) and E.A. Statement April 24, 1975
E.A. Statements and Speeches 75/30 (Oct. 23, 1975)
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 3, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 4
Ambassador appointed May 1, 1980
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 4
Credentials presented Sept. 28, 1980
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 4

Anguilla
Commissioner appointed Oct. 13, 1983
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 5
Credentials presented April 10, 1984
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 5.

Antigua and Barbuda
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 27, 1967
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 20
See also External Affairs 19 (1967), pp. 128-130
Commissioner appointed Jan. 12, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 6
First Canadian high commissioner appointed to Antigua and Barbuda on Nov. 1, 1981
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 6

Arab Union [Federation of the kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan, established Feb. 14, 1958; dissolved July 14, 1958]
Diplomatic recognition May 30, 1958
E.A. Annual Report, 1958, p. 25

Argentina
Diplomatic relations established Nov. 14, 1940
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 7
Debates, 1941, I, p. 817
Legation established on Nov. 13, 1941; raised to full embassy status on Oct. 1, 1945
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 7
E.A. Annual Report, 1941, p. 9; see also Annual Report 1949, p. 26
External Affairs 1 (1948/1949), p. 26 [Legation established October 1941?; transformed to  joint legation with Chile, 1942]
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed July 31, 1941; credentials presented Nov. 13, 1941
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 7
Legation given embassy status 1945
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 26
External Affairs 1 (1948/1949), p. 26
Diplomatic recognition of new government April 17, 1962
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 31

Armenia
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 31, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 7 (Jan. 8, 1992) and
27 (Jan. 31, 1992)
Ambassador appointed 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Credentials presented March 24, 1997 
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada – Armenia Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/russia-russie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/armenia-armenie.aspx?lang=eng&menuid=12   

Australia
Diplomatic relations established in 1939
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 8
High commissioner appointed Nov. 2, 1939
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 8
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Credentials presented Dec. 27, 1939
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 8
E.A. Annual Report, 1940, p. 13
Debates, 1939 (Special Session), p. 117
Debates, 1940, III, pp. 2538-2543

Austria
De facto recognition of German sovereignty
Debates, 1939, II, 2280
Treaty recognizing the boundaries of Austria
External Affairs 1/8 (November 1949), pp. 16-17
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 9, 1952
E.A. Press Release no. 55 (Aug. 9, 1952)
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Aug. 21, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 9
Credentials presented Sept. 9, 1952 (embassy to Austria located in Switzerland)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 9
E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 15
E.A. Press Release, no. 55 (Aug. 9, 1952) [credentials presented Aug. 9, 1952]
Diplomatic recognition of united Austria October 1955
E.A. Annual Report, 1955, p. 16
Resident chargé d’affaires a.i. at the legation in Austria from 1953 until 1956 when a resident embassy was established.  First resident ambassador to Austria appointed when the legation was raised to embassy status Sept. 7, 1956.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 10
E.A. Press Release no. 53 (Sept. 7, 1956)
Since 1971, Canadian ambassadors to Austria have been accredited to the Office of the United Nations at Vienna, and to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 10

Azerbaijan (Republic of; formerly a republic within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Ambassador appointed Dec. 17, 1992; Canadian ambassador to Russia concurrently accredited as ambassador to the Republic of Azerbaijan, resident in Moscow, Russia.
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Credentials presented July 17, 2004
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Bahamas
Commissioner appointed May 20, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 11
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1971, p. 22
Credentials presented Nov. 23, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 11         
Diplomatic recognition of independent Bahamas on July 10, 1973, the date of its independence
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 11
See also International Perspectives, November/December 1973, p. 48
E.A. Annual Review 1973, p. 24
Diplomatic relations established 1973
E.A. Annual Report, 1973, p. 24; 1974, p. 34
Debates, 1973, V, p. 5515

Bahrain
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 2, 1974 
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 12
E.A. Communiqué no. 12 (Feb. 2, 1974)
Secretary of State for External Affairs Statement March 19, 1974, p. 2
E.A. Statements and Speeches 74/3 (March 19, 1974), p. 3
E.A. Annual Review 1973, p. 9
Ambassador appointed Feb. 26, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 12
Credentials presented January 1977
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
E.A. Annual Review, 1978, p. 86

Bangladesh
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 14, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 13
E.A. Communiqué no. 6 (Feb. 14, 1972)
High commissioner appointed April 6, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 13
See also E.A.  Communiqué no. 52 (July 6, 1972)
Credentials presented June 5, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 13

Barbados
Diplomatic recognition of independent Barbados Nov. 30, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 14
E.A. Press Release no. 63 (Nov. 28, 1966)
High commissioner appointed Dec. 8, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 14
Credentials presented Nov. 30, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 14
High commission in Barbados accredited to Leeward and Windward Islands in 1973; Leeward and Windward Islands previously accredited to high commission in Trinidad and Tobago
E.A. Annual Review 1973, p. 24
See also “West Indies, Federation of”

Belarus (Republic of; formerly a republic within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Diplomatic relations established May 21, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 108 (May 21, 1992)
Ambassador appointed 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Credentials presented Feb. 13, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Belgium
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Dec. 22, 1938
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 15
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 3, 1939
Debates, 1939, III, p. 2590
E.A. Annual Report, 1939, p. 12
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 16
Credentials presented (resident legation established) Feb. 4, 1939
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 16
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Legation was closed in May 1940 following Germany’s invasion of Belgium, and transferred to London to the Allied governments-in-exile. (E.A. Annual Report, 1940, p. 12) By October 1942, the Canadian government had concluded that the matter of Canada’s relations with the Allied governments, then in exile in London, should be handled by an envoy extraordinary and plenipotentiary who should reside in that city and be formally accredited to each of them, i.e., Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia.  On Dec. 30, 1943 Brigadier Vanier began to serve as Canadian government representative to the French Committee of National Liberation.
See also External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
On Sept. 3, 1944, Brussels was liberated; Jan. 16, 1945 legation in Brussels was re-opened as an embassy
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 16
E.A. Annual Report, 1944, p. 16; Annual Report 1945, p. 17

Belize (formerly British Honduras)
Commissioner appointed July 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 17
Credentials presented Nov. 29, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 17
Canada’s first high commissioner to Belize, resident in Jamaica, [assumed office] on Sept. 21, 1981, the date of Belize’s independence.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 17
See also E.A. Statement July 30, 1981 and Sept. 21, 1981

Benin (formerly Dahomey)
Diplomatic relations established April 27, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 18
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962)
Ambassador appointed Jan. 25, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 18
Credentials presented May 4, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 18
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 47
Embassy to Dahomey established in Ghana Nov. 21, 1970; first Canadian ambassador accredited to Benin, after the country’s name changed on Dec. 1, 1975
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 18
E.A. Annual Report, 1975, p. 82

Bermuda
Commissioner appointed Nov. 4, 1976
Credentials presented Jan. 5, 1977
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 19
Diplomatic relations between Canada and Bermuda prior to 1976 were handled informally through the Canadian consul general in New York City. It was decided by 1976 to formally accredit an official Canadian representative, a commissioner, to Bermuda, resident in New York City.

Bhutan
Diplomatic recognition June 25, 2003
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 90 (June 25, 2003)
Ambassador appointed Dec. 22, 2003
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented April 27, 2004
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Bolivia
Diplomatic relations established May 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 20
Ambassador appointed April 20, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 20
E.A. Press Release no. 27 (April 24, 1961)
Credentials presented July 17, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 20
There was an interruption in Canadian-Bolivian relations in 1980 when Canada refused to recognize the new Bolivian government. This situation was rectified, however, with Canada’s subsequent diplomatic recognition on March 5, 1980.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 20

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Diplomatic recognition April 8, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 67 (April 8, 1992)
and no. 159 (July 28, 1992), p. 3
Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs 1992, p. 103
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 14, 1995 
Government of Canada News Release no. 232 (Dec. 14, 1995)
Embassy opened April 10, 1996
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 65 (April 10, 1996)
Ambassador appointed April 3, 1996
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Sept. 7, 1999
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada-Bosnia and Herzegovina Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/hungary-hongrie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/bosnia-bosnie.aspx?lang=eng

Botswana
Diplomatic recognition of independent Botswana (formerly known as Bechuanaland) given on Sept. 30, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 21
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, p. 38
See also External Affairs 18 (1966), pp. 510-11
High commissioner appointed Jan 29, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 21
Credentials presented Dec. 19, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 21
E.A. Annual Report, 1968, pp. 16, 81

Brazil
Diplomatic relations established Nov. 14, 1940
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 22
Debates, 1941, I, p. 817
Legation established September 1941
External Affairs 1 (1948/49), p. 26
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed June 24, 1941
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 22
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 26
Credentials presented Sept. 30, 1941
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 22
E.A. Annual Report, 1941, p. 9
Debates, 1941, IV, p. 4123
Legation raised to embassy status 1944
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 26
External Affairs 1 (1948/49), p. 26

British Guiana
See Guyana

British Virgin Islands
Commissioner appointed Nov. 25, 1994
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
High commissioner appointed Aug. 13, 2007
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Nov. 10, 2004
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Brunei (Darussalam)
Commissioner appointed Nov. 29, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 24
Credentials presented Nov. 15, 1983
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 24
Representation to Brunei had previously been on an informal basis with trade, consular and immigration activities in Brunei handled by Canadian representatives in Singapore. The preparations for agreement of Brunei’s independence in 1979 prompted both the governments of Canada and of Brunei to establish a more formal arrangement.
Representation to Brunei upgraded to high commission on Jan. 1, 1984, the date of Brunei’s independence. Representation raised from commissioner to high commissioner, resident in Malaysia.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 24

Bulgaria
Diplomatic relations established July 4, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 25
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, p. 42
External Affairs 18 (1966), p. 340
E.A. Press Release, no. 39 (Aug. 17, 1967)
Ambassador appointed Jan. 28, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 25
E.A. Press Release, no. 39 (Aug. 17, 1967)
Credentials presented Dec. 28, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 25
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 26

Burkina-Faso (formerly Upper Volta)
Diplomatic relations established April 27, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 26
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 48
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962)
Ambassador appointed April 12, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 26
Credentials presented July 19, 1963
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 26
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 22
External Affairs 22 (1970), pp. 229-231

Burma (see Myanmar)                       

Burundi
Diplomatic recognition of independent Burundi July 1, 1962
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 231
Diplomatic relations established in 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 28
External Affairs 21 (1969), p. 319
Ambassador appointed Feb. 18, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 28
Credentials presented June 7, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 28
E.A. Annual Report, 1969, pp. 19, 96
External Affairs 21 (1969), p. 319

Cambodia (previously known as Kampuchea)
Decision to recognize Cambodia as an associated state of Indo-China within the French Union Dec. 30, 1952
E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 24
E.A. Press Release no. 84 (Dec. 30, 1952)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Cambodia Sept. 4, 1962
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 332; see also External Affairs 20 (1968), pp. 517-521
Diplomatic recognition of the Royal Government of National Union of Cambodia [Prince Sihanouk] April 25, 1975
E.A. Annual Report, 1975, p. 14
Diplomatic recognition of the Democratic Republic of Kampuchea
E.A. Annual Review, 1975, p. 14
Diplomatic relations to be established with new government, after September 1993
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 182 (Sept. 24, 1993)
Ambassador appointed Aug. 16, 1994
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
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Credentials presented Aug. 17, 1995
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
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Cambodia/ISC
Ambassador appointed Aug. 10, 1954
The International Commissions for Supervision and Control (ICSC) in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam were set up to supervise the provisions of the Geneva Agreements. Canada became a member in 1954 … at the invitation of the co-chairmen of the Geneva Conference on Indochina. In 1973 these commissions were superseded by a new four-power International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS), composed of Canada, Hungary, Indonesia and Poland. This was set up to supervise the second armistice in Vietnam. Canada withdrew from it on June 29, 1973.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 29

Cameroon (federal republic; union of French Cameroun and British Southern Cameroons; established Oct. 1, 1961; also written as Cameroun)
Diplomatic relations established Dec 7, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 30
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 14
E.A. Press Release no. 86 (Dec. 7, 1961) and Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962)
Embassy established at Yaoundé, Cameroon in February 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 30
Ambassador appointed March 1, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 30
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
Credentials presented June 27, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 30
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 18
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 170Canadian recognition of Cameroon’s entry into the Commonwealth:  Oct. 16, 1995     
Government of Canada News Release no. 191 (Oct. 16, 1995)

Cameroun (former French colony; also written as Cameroon)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Cameroun Jan. 1, 1960
External Affairs 12 (1960), p. 584

Cape Verde
Diplomatic recognition in 1975
E.A. Statement Sept. 22, 1975)
E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 75/30 (Oct. 11, 1975); no. 75/39 (Nov. 26, 1975)
Diplomatic relations established in 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 31
Ambassador appointed July 20, 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 31
Credentials presented Oct. 20, 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 31

Cayman Islands
Commissioner appointed Sept. 22, 1982
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 32
Credentials presented Feb. 1, 1988
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 32

Central African Republic
Diplomatic relations established June 13, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 33
E.A. Press Release no. 32 (June 13, 1962)
Ambassador appointed June 28, 1962 [July 28, 1962?]
Discrepancy between information in Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 33 and
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng 
Credentials presented Sept. 28, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 33
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 18
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 170

Chad
Diplomatic relations established February 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 35
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
Ambassador appointed March 1, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 35
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
Credentials presented Dec. 6, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 35
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 47
External Affairs 15 (1963) p. 170

Chile
Diplomatic relations established Oct. 9, 1941
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 37.
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Sept. 5, 1941 (legation)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 36
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 26
Credentials presented Jan. 2, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 36
E.A. Annual Report, 1941, pp. 9-10
Joint legation established with Argentina, 1942; separate diplomatic mission established in 1943.
External Affairs 1(1948/49), p. 26
Ambassador appointed May 15, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 36
Credentials presented July 8, 1944; legation given embassy status
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 37
E.A. Annual Report, 1944, p. 18; Annual Report 1949, p. 26
External Affairs 1 (1948/49), p. 26
Diplomatic recognition of new government [Pinochet] Sept. 29, 1973
E.A. Communiqué no. 89, 1973

China (Republic of, Nanking; seat of government transferred from Chungking March 1, 1946)
Diplomatic relations established Nov. 6, 1941
Debates, 1941-42, IV, p. 4123
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 5, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
Credentials presented May 11, 1943
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
E.A. Annual Report, 1942, p. 17 (credentials presented in 1942)
Debates, 1943, I, p. 194
Ambassador appointed Oct. 24, 1946
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
Credentials presented May 21, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
Diplomatic recognition of Republic of China terminated Oct. 13, 1970
E.A. Annual Report, 1970, pp. 29-30
Debates, 1970, I, pp. 49-51

China (People’s Republic of China)
Announcement of intent to establish diplomatic relations May 29, 1968
E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 68/17 (May 29, 1968), p. 5
E.A. Annual Report 1968, pp. 21-22; Annual Report 1969, pp. 24-25;
Annual Report 1970, pp. 5, 29-31
Diplomatic recognition Oct. 13, 1970
E.A. Annual Report, 1970, p. 29
Diplomatic relations established Oct. 13, 1970
E.A. Annual Report, 1970, pp. 29-31
Debates, 1970, I, pp. 49-51
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
See also E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 70/9 (June 3, 1970), p. 6; International Perspectives, January/February 1972, pp. 3-6; External Affairs 23 (1971), pp. 286-287
Chargé d’affaires appointed Jan. 11, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
Ambassador appointed April 8, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
E.A. Press Release no. 25 (April 13, 1971)
Credentials presented June 10, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 38
E.A. Annual Report, 1971, p. 8
External Affairs 23 (1971), pp. 286-287

Colombia
Diplomatic relations established Nov. 6, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 39
E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 19
E.A. Press Release, no. 71 (Nov. 6, 1952)
Ambassador appointed Nov. 22, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 39
Credentials presented April 9, 1953
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 15
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 39

Comoros
Diplomatic recognition in 1976
E.A. Annual Review, 1976, p. 5
E.A. Statement and Speeches no. 75/39 (Nov. 26, 1975) [diplomatic recognition in 1975?]
Diplomatic relations established June 16, 1977
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 40
Ambassador appointed Nov. 17, 1977
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 40
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng 
Credentials presented Nov. 23, 1977
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 40
E.A. Annual Review, 1977, p. 112
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng 

Congo (Republic of; also known as Congo-Brazzaville and Congo Republic)
Diplomatic relations with Congo-Brazzaville established February 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 41
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
Ambassador appointed March 1, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 41
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
Credentials presented Aug. 13, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 41
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 18
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 170

Congo (Democratic Republic of)    
(Previously Belgian Congo 1908-1960; also known as Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) 1960-1965; Democratic Republic of the Congo 1965-1971; Zaire 1971-1997; Democratic Republic of the Congo 1997- )
Diplomatic recognition of independent Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville) June 30, 1960; Canadian Consulate General established June 30, 1960 (date of independence)
E.A.  Press Release no. 31 (June 12, 1962)
E.A. Annual Report, 1960, p. 44
Debates, 1960, V. p. 5577
Diplomatic relations established June 12, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 215
E.A. Press Release no. 31 (June 12, 1962)
Chargé d’affaires i. a. appointed June 8, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 215
Ambassador appointed June 27, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 215
E.A. Press Release no. 69 (Nov. 10, 1965)
Credentials presented Nov. 24, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 215                       

Costa Rica
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 20, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 42 [1957 date appears to be incorrect]
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 60, 394
Ambassador appointed March 16, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 42
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 143, 394
Credentials presented June 27, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 42
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 29
External Affairs 21 (1969), pp. 137-139

Côte d’Ivoire (formerly known as the Ivory Coast)
Diplomatic relations established April 27, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 43
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962)
Ambassador appointed (resident in Ghana) April 18, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 43
Credentials presented Sept. 26, 1963
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 43
Embassy in Côte d’Ivoire established March 11, 1970
E.A. Annual Report, 1970, p. 23
External Affairs 22 (1970), p. 229
E.A. Press Release, no. 36, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 43

Croatia
Diplomatic recognition Jan. 15, 1992
Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs 1992, p. 102
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 159 (July 28, 1992), p. 3
Ambassador appointed March 14, 1995
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 143 (Aug. 23, 1995)
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
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Cuba
Diplomatic relations established March 16, 1945
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 44
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Jan. 30, 1945; legation established
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 44
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 26
External Affairs 1 (1948/49), p. 26
Credentials presented May 8, 1945
E.A. Annual Report, 1945, pp. 7, 20
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 44
Ambassador appointed July 21, 1950
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 44
Legation given embassy status Sept. 5, 1950
E.A. Press Release, no. 62, 1950
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 44
External Affairs 5 (1953), p. 213
Credentials presented Oct. 25, 1950
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 44

Cyprus
Diplomatic recognition of independent Cyprus Aug. 16, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 45
High commissioner, resident in Israel, appointed April 20, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 45
E.A. Press Release no. 28 (April 24, 1961)
Credentials presented Aug. 14, 1961 (High commission established temporarily in Cyprus)
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 44
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 323-325
Canadian Representatives Abroad, June 1964, p. 11
Ambassador to Israel concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Cyprus, resident in Israel Jan. 23, 1970
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 45

Czech Republic (formerly known as Czechoslovakia; subsequently Czech Republic and Slovak Federal Republic)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Czech Republic Dec. 31, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 249 (Dec. 31, 1992)
Ambassador appointed Jan. 5, 1993
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 3 (Jan. 6, 1993)
Credentials presented Sept. 10, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng           

Czechoslovakia
Diplomatic recognition of the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia Oct. 12, 1940
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 47
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 5, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 47
Legation to Czechoslovakian government in exile established in London on Nov. 30, 1942
E.A. Annual Report, 1942, p. 17
External Affairs 23 (1971), pp. 496-502
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 47
Credentials presented April 9, 1943
“By October 1942, the Canadian Government decided that Canada’s relations with the Allied Governments in Exile in London should be handled by an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, who should reside in London and be formally accredited to each of them; namely Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Norway, Poland, the Netherlands, and Yugoslavia.  A Legation was opened in Czechoslovakia on 24 March 1947 under the direction of a resident Chargé d'Affaires a.i.  [The ambassador] did not present credentials due to the Canadian government’s disapproval of the Communist takeover. In fact, there were no presentations of credentials by any Canadian representative until 17 June 1960.  An Embassy was established in Czechoslovakia in April 1965.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 47
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 88
External Affairs 12 (1960), p. 672; 15 (1963), p. 180

Dahomey (see Benin)

Denmark
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 5, 1945
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 48
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Dec. 5, 1945
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 48
Credentials presented April 4, 1946 (Legation established in Norway)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 48
E.A. Annual Report, 1946, p. 21
Legation re-established in Denmark on Sept. 1 1947; raised to full embassy status Jan. 16, 1956.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 48
E.A. Press Release, no. 109, 1955

Djibouti
(Formerly known as French Somaliland, and later as Territoire des Afars et Issas)
Diplomatic recognition June 27, 1977
Debates, 1977-78, II, p. 2073
E.A.  Communiqué no. 54 (June 27, 1977)
Diplomatic relations established in 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 49
Ambassador appointed June 8, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 49
E.A. Annual Review, 1978, p. 85
Credentials presented June 13, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 49

Dominica
Diplomatic recognition of independent Dominica Nov. 3, 1978
E.A. Communiqué no. 98 (Nov. 3, 1978)
E.A. Annual Review, 1978, p. 67
High commissioner appointed Dec. 21, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 50
Credentials presented March 14, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 50

Dominican Republic
Diplomatic recognition (?) Aug. 18, 1952
E.A. Press Release, no. 53 (Aug. 18, 1952)
Diplomatic relations established April 22, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 52
E.A.  Press Release no. 23 (April 22, 1954)
Ambassador appointed Nov. 18, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 51
E.A. Press Release no. 70 (Oct. 20, 1954)
Credentials presented Jan. 27, 1955
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 52
Embassy established in Dominican Republic on Nov. 9, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 52
Diplomatic recognition of new government (after coup d’état) Dec. 16, 1963
E.A. Annual Report 1963, p. 31

East Timor
See Timor-Leste

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
Permanent Observer appointed Aug. 31, 2010
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Ecuador
Diplomatic relations established in March 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 54
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 29
E.A. Communiqué, no. 1, 1961
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 60
Ambassador appointed Dec. 1, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 53
See also E.A. Press Release no. 67 (Aug. 26, 1960)
Credentials presented April 25, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 53
Diplomatic recognition of new government (after coup d’état) Aug. 2, 1963
E.A. Annual Report 1963, p. 31
Embassy closed, diplomatic relations continued 1969
E.A. Annual Report, 1969, p. 29
E.A. Press Release, no. 64, 1969
Embassy re-opened October 1980
E.A. Annual Review, 1980, p. 45
E.A. Communiqué, no. 21, 1980
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 54
Embassy closed, diplomatic relations continued October 1986
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 54

Egypt
Diplomatic recognition June 25, 1953
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 11
Diplomatic relations established July 28, 1954
E.A. Press Release, no. 42 (July 28, 1954)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 55
Chargé d’affaires a.i. appointed Oct. 19, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 55
Ambassador appointed Nov. 18, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 55
See also E.A. Press Release no. 71 (Oct. 21, 1954)
Credentials presented Dec. 27, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 55
E.A. Annual Report, 1954, p. 16
[See also United Arab Republic – a union of Egypt and Syria formed on Feb. 1, 1958, dissolved on Sept. 29, 1961.]

El Salvador
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 29, 1961
E.A. Communiqué, no. 95 (Dec. 29, 1961)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 56
External Affairs 14 (1962), pp. 162-163
Ambassador appointed Dec. 26, 1961
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 394
Credentials presented April 4, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 56

Equatorial Guinea
Diplomatic relation established Aug. 20, 1980
E.A. Communiqué no. 71 (Aug. 22, 1980)
E.A. Annual Report, 1960, p. 54      
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 57
Ambassador appointed 1980
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 57
See also External Affairs Canada Heads of Missions from 1880-1980, p. 28
(ambassador appointed May 2, 1978)
Credentials presented Jan. 21, 1981
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 57

Eritrea
Diplomatic recognition April 28, 1993
External Affairs and International Trade Canada News Release no. 102 (April 28, 1993)
Ambassador appointed July 4, 1994
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented May 7, 2003
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Estonia
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 26, 1991
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 182 (Aug. 26, 1991)
Ambassador appointed Sept. 6, 1991 [Sept. 5, 1991?]
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 190 (Sept. 6, 1991); no. 261 (Nov. 21, 1991); no. 18 (Jan. 20, 1992) “Backgrounder: Canadian Offices in the Baltic States”
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Jan. 21, 1993
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 181 (Aug. 23, 1991), no. 190 (Sept. 6, 1991) and Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 132 (June 24, 1994) and accompanying “Backgrounder:  Canada-Estonia Relations”

Ethiopia
Diplomatic recognition Oct. 13, 1965
E.A. Press Release no. 63, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 58
Diplomatic relations established Oct. 13, 1965
External Affairs 17 (1965), pp. 531-533
Ambassador appointed Sept. 2, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 58
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, p. 38
External Affairs 18 (1966), pp. 254-255
E.A. Press Release no. 70 (Nov. 10, 1965)
Credentials presented April 12, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 58

European Communities
(Includes European Economic Community, European Atomic Energy Community and European Coal and Steel Community)
Ambassador to Belgium accredited to the European Communities at ambassadorial level Dec. 29, 1959
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 59 

Federation of Arab Emirates – see United Arab Emirates

Federation of the West Indies
[Came into existence Jan. 3, 1958; comprised of Barbados, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Trinidad and Tobago and Windward Islands.  Jamaica withdrew Sept. 19, 1961; Federation dissolved Aug. 31, 1962]
Diplomatic recognition April 22, 1958
External Affairs 11 (1959), p. 122; 13 (1961), p. 242
See also information under the name of each state

Fiji
Diplomatic recognition of independent Fiji Oct. 10, 1970
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 60
High commissioner appointed Oct. 1, 1970
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 60
Credentials presented Oct. 10, 1970; Canadian high commissioner to Australia (later New Zealand) concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Fiji
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 60
E.A. Annual Report, 1970, p. 108
External Affairs 22 (1970), p. 441
“Upon Fiji’s departure from the Commonwealth in 1988, [the high commissioner’s] title was changed from High Commissioner to Ambassador. The government of Fiji did not request a new presentation of credentials.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 60
Canadian support for the decision to suspend Fiji from the Commonwealth Dec. 8, 2006
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada News Release no. 154 (Dec. 8, 2006)

Finland
Peace treaty with Finland Sept. 19, 1947
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 8
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed March 16, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 61
Credentials presented Sept. 24, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 61
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 112
Legation established to Finland established in Sweden on Sept. 24, 1949
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Legation opened in Finland in April 1952, under direction of a resident chargé d’affaires a.i.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 62
Legation to Finland raised to the status of embassy Feb. 26, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 62
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 14
Credentials presented April 13, 1960
External Affairs 12 (1960), p. 672

France
Commissioner appointed July 12, 1882
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 63
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 31, 1928
Debates, 1928, I, pp. 2, 58
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 63
F.H. Soward, Canadian External Policy 1946-1952: An Analysis. Part I, ch. 5, p. 1
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Sept. 24, 1928
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 63
Credentials presented Sept. 29, 1928; resident legation established
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 63
Debates, 1929, I, p. 3
Report of the Secretary of State for External Affairs 1930, p. 17
Legation transferred to London, following Germany’s invasion of France June 24, 1940 
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 63
Diplomatic recognition of French Committee of National Liberation [in Algiers] Aug. 27, 1943
Mission established Jan. 22, 1944; mission closed (?) Sept. 2, 1944
Diplomatic recognition of Provisional Government of France Oct. 23, 1944
Following the liberation of Paris (Aug. 24, 1944) embassy in France re-established Dec. 20, 1944.
E.A. Annual Report, 1944, pp. 20-21
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 63

Gabon
Diplomatic relations established in February 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 66
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 18
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962)
Ambassador appointed Feb. 27, 1962
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
“[The ambassador] was unable to present credentials because of the ‘Gabon incident’, in which Ottawa temporarily severed relations with Gabon.” 
Kim Richard-Nossal, The Politics of Canadian Foreign Policy, 2nd ed. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., 1989, pp. 67, 272, 274
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 66        
Embassy to Gabon established in Cameroon Feb. 1, 1963
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 65
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 22
Ambassadors could not present credentials in 1967 and in 1984
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 65
Canadian embassy established in Gabon in October 1985. 
E.A.  Annual Report 1985-86, p. 41
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 66       

Gambia
Diplomatic recognition of independent Gambia Feb. [18], 1965
E.A. Annual Report, 1965, p. 35
Diplomatic relations established in 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 67
High commissioner appointed July 7, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 67
Credentials presented Aug. 24, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 67
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 83
Credentials presented again June 15, 1970, following proclamation of the Republic (April 24, 1970)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 67         

Georgia (Republic of; formerly a republic within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Diplomatic relations established July 23, 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=en
Ambassador appointed 1992; Canadian ambassador to Russia concurrently accredited as ambassador to the Republic of Georgia, resident in Moscow, Russia
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Credentials presented Dec. 2, 2002
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Honorary consul to Georgia established in Tbilisi in 2011; Canadian embassy in Ankara, Turkey represents Canada in Georgia
Government of Canada. “Canada-Georgia Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/turkeyturquie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadageorgia-georgie.aspx?menuid=51&lang=eng

German Democratic Republic
Diplomatic relations established effectively Aug. 1, 1975
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 68
E.A. Annual Review, 1975, pp. 23, 69; Annual Review 1976, p. 19
Dept. of External Affairs Communiqué no. 65 (Aug. 1, 1975) “Canada/German Democratic Republic Joint Communiqué”
See also E.A. Statement Jan. 5, 1973, p. 5
Ambassador appointed Sept. 20, 1976 (ambassador to Poland concurrently appointed as ambassador to the German Democratic Republic)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 68
Credentials presented May 27, 1977
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 68
See also Michael Shea, “Canada and East Germany,” International Perspectives July/August 1986, pp. 9-11
On Oct. 3, 1990, the two Germanys reunited to form the Federal Republic of Germany.
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=en

Germany
Military mission to Allied Central Commission, Germany established Jan. 21, 1946; closed 1969
E.A. Annual Report, 1946, p. 28; 1969, p. 22
E.A. Press Release no. 32 (May 8, 1950)
Consulate [in Frankfurt] established July 16, 1948
E.A. Annual Report, 1948, p. 103

Germany (Federal Republic of)
Head of mission appointed Nov. 22, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 69
Credentials presented Dec. 15, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 69
Head of mission appointed at the rank of ambassador Oct. 27, 1950
E.A. Annual Report, 1950, p. 2
Termination of the state of war between Canada and Germany on July 10, 1951; civilian mission to the Allied High Commission transformed into an embassy
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 69
External Affairs 3 (1951), p. 292
“Ambassadors to the Federal Republic of Germany … also accredited to the Allied Control Council in Berlin, and in that capacity, are styled ‘Head of the Canadian Military Mission (and Consulate) in Berlin’.”
Ambassador appointed March 25, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 69
Credentials presented July 14, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 69
On Oct. 3, 1990, two Germanys reunited to form the Federal Republic of Germany.
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Ghana
Diplomatic recognition of independent Ghana March 6, 1957
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 70
High commissioner appointed July 13, 1957
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 70
E.A. Press Release no. 29 (May 17, 1957)
Credentials presented Oct. 30, 1957
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 70
E.A. Annual Report, 1957, p. 10

Great Britain
See United Kingdom

Greece
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 5, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 71
Legation to government of Greece in exile established in London Nov. 30, 1942;
credentials presented June 1, 1943
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, pp. 71-72
E.A. Annual Report, 1942, pp. 5, 17
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
“On 30 November 1942, the Canadian Legation to the Government of Greece in exile was established in London.  By October 1942, the Canadian Government decided that Canada’s relations with the Allied Governments, then in exile, should be handled by an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, who should reside in London, and be formally accredited to each of them; namely Belgium, Greece, Poland, Yugoslavia, Norway, the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia. Brigadier Vanier (later Major-General) fulfilled this role until 30 December 1943, when he left London for Algiers to serve as the Canadian Government’s Representative to the French Committee of National Liberation. While in Algiers, he continued to serve as Canada’s Minister to the Greek and Yugoslavian Governments in exile who had moved to Cairo … Canadian representation was transferred from London to Athens on 12 Sept. 1945.  The Canadian Legation was given Embassy status on 28 Sept. 1945.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 72
E.A. Annual Report, 1945, p. 21
Ambassador appointed Aug. 9, 1949
E.A. Press Release no. 47 (Aug. 9, 1949)

Greenland
Diplomatic relations established [announcement] June 11, 1940 
E.A. Annual Report, 1940, p. 15
Consulate to be established; consul appointed [announcement] June 11, 1940
E.A. Annual Report, 1940, p. 15

Grenada
Diplomatic relations established March 3, 1967
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 20
External Affairs 19 (1967), pp. 128-130
High commissioner appointed Jan. 23, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 73
Diplomatic recognition of independent Grenada Feb. 7, 1974; high commission established, credentials presented Feb. 7, 1974
E.A. Annual Review, 1974, pp. 34, 100
E.A. Communiqué, no. 14 (Feb. 6, 1974)                
Upon Grenada’s independence, high commissioner to Barbados concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Grenada, resident in Barbados.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 7

Guatemala
Diplomatic relations established Sept. 16, 1961
E.A. Press Release, no. 56, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 75 
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 394
Ambassador appointed Sept. 16, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 74
Credentials presented Oct. 18, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 75
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 29
Diplomatic recognition of new government (after coup d’état) April 26, 1963
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 31
“The Ambassador to Mexico was concurrently accredited as Ambassador to Guatemala, resident in Mexico. Although a non-resident Ambassador was appointed to Guatemala, a Canadian Embassy was in place in Guatemala City under the direction of resident Chargés d’Affaires a.i. from November 1961 to July 1982, and again in 1987.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 75

Guinea
Diplomatic relations established March 28, 1962
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 47
E.A. Press Release, no. 17 (March 28, 1962) 
Ambassador appointed April 12, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 76
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962); see also Press Release Nov. 19, 1962
Credentials presented July 27, 1963
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 76
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 22
The high commissioner to Ghana concurrently appointed as ambassador to Guinea, resident in Ghana.

Guinea-Bissau (formerly Portuguese Guinea)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Guinea-Bissau Aug. 12, 1974
E.A. Communiqué no. [52], 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 78
Diplomatic relations established 1975
E.A. Statement April 29, 1975, p. 4
Africa-Canada Relations: Report to the House of Commons by the Hon. Allan J.
MacEachen … Following his tour of Africa April 13 to 26, 1975, p. 103
Ambassador appointed April 24, 1975; by 1975, it was agreed that the two countries would exchange non-resident diplomatic representatives.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 78
E.A. Statement April 24, 1975, p. 5
Credentials presented March 26, 1976; ambassador to Senegal was concurrently accredited as ambassador to Guinea-Bissau, resident in Dakar, Senegal
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 77              

Guyana
Commissioner appointed Feb. 6, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 79
Credentials presented March 10, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 79
Diplomatic recognition of independent Guyana May 26, 1966; high commissioner appointed May 26, 1966; resident high commission was established in Georgetown, Guyana after the country’s independence
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 79
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, pp. 40, 81
External Affairs 18 (January-December 1966), pp. 269-270
Credentials presented Sept. 25, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 79

Haiti
Diplomatic relations established May 12, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 81
E.A. Press Release, no. 27 (May 12, 1954)
Ambassador appointed Nov. 18, 1954; ambassador to Cuba concurrently accredited as ambassador to Haiti, resident in Cuba
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, pp. 80-81
E.A. Press Release no. 70 (Oct. 20, 1954)
Credentials presented Jan. 7, 1955
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 80
E.A. Annual Report, 1954, p. 20
[presented Jan. 3, 1955] E.A. Press Release no. 1 (Jan. 3, 1955)
Resident ambassador in Haiti appointed Oct. 27, 1977; credentials presented Nov. 8, 1977
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 80
Canadian government support for the reversal of the attempted coup d’état in Haiti
E.A. News Release no. 3 (Jan. 7, 1991)
Canadian government seeking ways to achieve the immediate restoration of Haiti’s legitimate government
E.A. News Release no. 216 (Oct. 1, 1991)
See also E.A. News Release no. 213 (Sept. 30, 1991), E.A. Statement 91/48 (Oct. 11, 1991)
E.A. Statement 91/53 (Nov. 4, 1991)
Expression of support for the voluntary departure of those who had been occupying Canadian embassy in Port-au-Prince
E.A. News Release no. 299 (Dec. 31, 1991)
Canadian government support for the return of Haiti’s legitimate government [Oct. 15, 1994]
E.A. Statement 94/62 (Oct. 15, 1994)         

Holy See
Diplomatic relations established Oct. 15, 1969
E.A. Annual Report, 1969, p. 22
E.A. Press Release, no. 56, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 82
See also E.A. Press Release, no. 11, 1956
Ambassador appointed Oct. 15, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 82
Credentials presented April 23, 1970; resident embassy established
E.A. Annual Report, 1970, p. 106
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 82                     

Honduras
Diplomatic relations established in June 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 83
E.A.  Press Release no. 95 (Dec. 29, 1961)
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 60, 394 [Jan. 20, 1961]
Ambassador appointed March 16, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 83        
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 143, 394
Credentials presented Sept. 26, 1961
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 29
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 83
Diplomatic recognition of new government (after coup d’état) Dec. 24, 1963
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 31
Ambassador to Costa Rica was concurrently accredited as ambassador to Honduras, resident in Costa Rica.  In 1982, it was decided that Canadian ambassadors to Honduras would be resident in Guatemala. Starting in 1987, Canadian ambassador to Honduras resident again in Costa Rica.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 83

Hong Kong
Commissioner appointed Sept. 23, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 84
Credentials presented Nov. 18, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 84
Hand-over to People’s Republic of China June 30-July 1, 1997
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 109 (June 27, 1997);  News Release no. 61 (March 24, 1997) 

Hungary
Peace treaty with Hungary Sept. 19, 1947
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 8
Diplomatic relations established June 11, 1964
E.A. Annual Report, 1964, p. 35
External Affairs 16 (1964), pp. 329-331; 17 (1965), p. 370
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 85
Ambassador appointed April 22, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 85
Credentials presented May 22, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 85
E.A. Annual Report, 1965, pp. 37, 69
External Affairs 17 (1965), pp. 370-371
Ambassador to Czechoslovakia was concurrently accredited as ambassador to Hungary, resident in Czechoslovakia.  Canadian embassy in Hungary opened on Nov. 28, 1972, under the direction of a resident chargé d’affaires a.i.
E.A. Annual Report, 1972, p. 23
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 85
Resident ambassador, however, not accredited to Hungary until 1975.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 85

Iceland
Diplomatic relations established in January 1948
External Affairs 12 (1960), p. 822
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 86
E.A. Press Release no. 24 (April 8, 1949)
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed March 16, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 86
E.A. Press Release no. 24 (April 8, 1949)
Credentials presented Aug. 11, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 86
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 112
Ambassador appointed Jan. 26, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 86
Credentials presented July 4, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 86
New Canadian embassy opened in Iceland
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 52 (May 15, 2002)

India
Diplomatic relations established (announcement) April 6, 1945
Debates, 1945 (1st Session), p. 596
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 87
High commissioner appointed Dec. 23, 1946
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 87
Credentials presented April 27, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 87
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 42

Indochina
Head of delegation appointed Feb. 1, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 88
“The first Commissioners were appointed by Order in Council. Their successors were appointed by the Secretary of State for External Affairs on the strength of Canada’s membership in the Commissions.  At least four of them … were appointed by Order in Council to carry out special missions connected with their presence in the area.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 88

Indonesia
Diplomatic recognition Dec. 27, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 89
External Affairs 2/1 (January 1950), p. 30
E.A. Press Release no. 88 (Dec. 27, 1949)
Diplomatic relations at embassy level established March 3, 1953
E.A. Press Release no. 13 (March 3, 1953)
Ambassador appointed Dec. 2, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 89
Credentials presented June 1, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 89
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 19
Embassy formally established in Jakarta July 16, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 89
See also E.A. Press Release no. 13 (March 3, 1953)

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) of the United Nations
Delegation appointed Nov. 26, 1948
E.A. Press Release no. 90 (Nov. 26, 1948)
See also E.A. Statements and Speeches 54/23 (1953), p. 11

International Civil Aviation Organization (in existence since April 4, 1947; Canada is a charter member)
Since the organization’s inception, Canada has been represented on its governing body, the Council, by a resident head of mission who holds the title of representative of Canada.  The seat of the organization is in Montreal.
Representative appointed January 1947
Agreement establishing the headquarters in Montreal April 14, 1951
External Affairs 3 (1951), p. 153
Commissioner first appointed Dec. 1, 1954
Credentials presented Jan. 10, 1955
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 90

International Fund for Agricultural Development
Permanent representative appointed June 14, 2006
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

International Organizations (Vienna)
Ambassador and permanent representative appointed July 10, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Iran
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Jan. 9, 1959
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 91
E.A. Press Release no. 76 (Dec. 30, 1958) [appointed Dec. 30, 1958]
Credentials presented; legation established March 11, 1959
E.A. Annual Report, 1959, p. 30
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 91
See also E.A. Press Release no. 99 (Dec. 9, 1960)
Ambassador appointed Jan. 12, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 91
Credentials presented; legation raised to embassy status Feb. 14, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 91
E.A. Press Release no. 99 (Dec. 9, 1960)
Diplomatic recognition of new government Feb. 16 [15?], 1979
E.A. Communiqué, no. 16 (Feb. 16, 1979)
E.A. Annual Review, 1979, p. 60
“Embassy closed 27 Jan. 1980, the Embassy was closed. [The ambassador] and all Canadian-based staff were withdrawn from Iran. [E.A. Communiqué no. 6 (Jan. 28, 1980)] This action was the final step in progressive reductions in Embassy staff resulting from the difficulty for the Embassy to conduct normal business, due to the political situation in that country. From 1980 to 1988, Canada and Iran did not maintain normal diplomatic relations, although relations were not formally severed. From 1982 to 1988, consular services were handled for Canada by the Royal Danish Embassy in Tehran. 
“On 18 July 1988, the governments of Canada and Iran agreed to resume normal diplomatic relations, with Ambassadors to be exchanged at a later date. [E.A. News Release no. 152 (July 18, 1988)] On 16 October 1988, the doors of the Canadian Embassy officially opened under the direction of a resident Chargé d’Affaires a.i., providing consular and commercial services. The appointment of a Canadian Ambassador was postponed from the proposed date of the summer of 1989, due to the Rushdie affair.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 91 
External Affairs and International Trade Canada Annual Report 1988/89, p. 60
E.A. News Release no. 226 (Oct. 17, 1988)
Renewed exchange of ambassadors, fall 1990
E.A. Annual Report, 1990/91, p. 45
Recall of the Canadian ambassador to Iran:  July 14, 2004
Foreign Affairs Canada News Release no. 77 (July 14, 2004) 
Appointment (Nov. 23, 2004) of Canadian ambassador to Iran after withdrawal of Canadian ambassador on July 14, 2004
Foreign Affairs Canada News Release no. 133 (Nov. 23, 2004)
Canadian statement on the expulsion of Canadian ambassador to Iran Dec. 3, 2007
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada News Release no. 170 (Dec. 3, 1007)
Diplomatic relations suspended; embassy closed Sept. 7, 2012
E.A. Press Release Sept. 7, 2012
http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2012/09/07a.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada-Iran Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/iran/canada-iran/canada-iran.aspx?lang=eng

Iraq
Diplomatic recognition Aug. 1, 1958
E.A. Annual Report, 1958, p. 27
Embassy to Iraq established in the U.A.R. in 1960
E.A. Annual Report, 1960, p. 45
Ambassador appointed Feb. 20, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 92
E.A. Press Release no. 21 (April 10, 1961)
Credentials presented June 27, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 92
“Canada’s first representative to Iraq was appointed as Ambassador to Lebanon and concurrently accredited as Ambassador to Iraq, resident in Lebanon.  [Subsequently,] the Ambassador to Iran was concurrently accredited as Ambassador to Iraq, resident in Iran.  [The Canadian embassy was moved from] Iran to Lebanon. The Ambassador to Lebanon was concurrently accredited as Ambassador to Iraq, resident in Lebanon. This was the result of political tensions between Iran and Iraq.  The first resident Canadian Ambassador to Iraq [assumed office] when the Embassy formally opened in Baghdad in 1975.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 92         

Ireland
Diplomatic relations established Sept. 11, 1939
E.A. Annual Report, 1939, p. 15
Debates, 1939 (Special Session), p. 117
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 94
High commissioner appointed Dec. 28, 1939
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 94
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Credentials presented; resident high commission established March 9, 1940
E.A. Annual Report, 1940, p. 15
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 93
Ireland severed formal association with the Commonwealth on April 17, 1949.  Embassy to independent Ireland established July 17, 1949, with representatives having the rank of ambassador.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 94

Israel
De facto diplomatic recognition Dec. 24, 1948; de jure diplomatic recognition May 11, 1949
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 29
E.A. Press Release no. 97 (Dec. 24, 1948); no. 99 (Dec. 27, 1948)
External Affairs vol. 1, no. 1 (January 1949), p. 29
Diplomatic relations established July 28, 1954
E.A. Press Release, no. 41 (July 28, 1954)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 95
Chargé d’affaires a.i. appointed Oct. 18, 1954; ambassador appointed Nov. 18, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 95
E.A. Annual Report, 1954, p. 16
External Affairs 6 (1954), p. 318
E.A. Press Release no. 72 (Oct. 21, 1954)
Credentials presented Nov. 23, 1954; ambassador to Greece concurrently accredited as ambassador to Israel, resident in Greece
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 95
First resident Canadian ambassador to Israel [assumed office] in 1958. 
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 95
E.A. Press Release no. 44 (Sept. 5, 1958)

Italy
Peace treaty with Italy Sept. 15, 1947
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, pp. 8, 44
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed; legation established Aug. 13, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 96
Credentials presented Oct. 13, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 96
Legation raised to embassy status June 26, 1948
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 96
E.A. Press Release, no. 45 (June 2, 1948)
Credentials presented Nov. 8, 1948
E.A. Annual Report, 1948, p. 77

Ivory Coast (see Côte d’Ivoire)

Jamaica
Diplomatic recognition of independent Jamaica [Aug. 6], 1962
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 28
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 97
Acting high commissioner appointed Sept. 7, 1962; high commissioner appointed Dec. 6, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 97
E.A. Press Release Nov. 30, 1962
Credentials presented March 4, 1963
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 97
See also “West Indies, Federation of”

Japan
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 31, 1928
Debates, 1928, I, pp. 2, 58
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 99
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed; legation established Jan. 18, 1929
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 99
Canada from Sea to Sea  (Ottawa: Dept. of External Affairs, 1950), p. 107
Report of the Secretary of State for External Affairs 1930, p. 17
Credentials presented Sept. 18, 1929
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 99
E.A. Annual Report, 1931, p. 15
Embassy formally closed Dec. 7, 1941, because a state of war existed between Canada and Japan as of that date.  Canada-based staff of the legation remained interned in Japan until their repatriation in December 1942. 
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 99
Debates, 1942, I, p. 198
Following the end of the war, a civilian liaison mission accredited to the supreme Allied commander, Gen. Douglas MacArthur (U.S.), authorized by cabinet on July 9, 1946; head of mission appointed July 7, 1946
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, pp. 98-99
Canada from Sea to Sea  (Ottawa: Dept. of External Affairs, 1950), p. 107
After signature of peace treaty with Japan, normal diplomatic relations resumed and the liaison mission changed to an embassy March 18, 1950
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 99
E.A. Press Release no. 26 (April 28, 1952); no. 27 (April 28, 1952)
E.A. Annual Report, 1951, p. 23
Chargé d’affaires a.i. appointed April 28, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 98
Ambassador appointed Sept. 25, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 98
Credentials presented Jan. 15, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 98
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 18

Jordan
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 23, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 100
E.A. Press Release no. 93 (Dec. 23, 1964)
Ambassador appointed Dec. 2, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 100
Credentials presented March 15, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 100
E.A. Annual Report, 1965, pp. 36, 69
External Affairs 17 (1965), p. 190
On March 30, 1976, Canada removed all embassy staff and the chargé d’affaires from the embassy in Beirut, because of the dangerous conditions in Lebanon; diplomatic relations continued.  In August 1977, embassy in Beirut re-opened; ambassador assumed office in October 1977.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 100
See also “Arab Union”

Kampuchea – see Cambodia

Kazakhstan
Diplomatic relations established May 21, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 108 (May 21, 1992)
Ambassador to Moscow concurrently accredited to Kazakhstan May 21, 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)

Kenya
Diplomatic recognition of independent Kenya Dec. 12, 1963
Debates, 1963, VI, p. 5743
E.A. Press Release no. A74 (Dec. 6, 1963)
Diplomatic relations established in 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 101
High commissioner appointed Feb. 9, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 101
E.A. Press Release no. 30 (May 16, 1964)
Credentials presented May 5, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 101
E.A. Annual Report, 1964, p. 67
First resident high commissioner appointed Feb. 9, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 101
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 22
(See also E.A. Press Release, no. 22, 1966; no. 40, 1966)
Credentials presented Aug. 1, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 101

Kiribati (formerly known as the Gilbert Islands)
Canadian high commissioner to New Zealand accredited as high commissioner to Kiribati on July 12, 1979, date of Kiribati’s independence 
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 102
Credentials presented July 12, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 102

Korea (Republic of)
Diplomatic recognition April 8, 1949
External Affairs 1/8 (August 1949), pp. 19-20
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 14, 1963; ambassador to Japan concurrently appointed as ambassador to Korea
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 103
E.A. Press Release no. B. 2 (Jan. 14, 1963)
See also E.A. Press Release no. 93 (Dec. 23, 1964) [diplomatic relations established]
Ambassador appointed Sept. 24, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 103
Credentials presented Nov. 11, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 103
External Affairs 17 (1965), p. 54
First Canadian embassy in Korea established on Jan. 17, 1974
E.A. Communiqué, no. 66 (Nov. 8, 1974)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 103

Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of)
Diplomatic recognition July 26, 2000 
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 184 (July 26, 2000)
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 6, 2001
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 17 (Feb. 6, 2001)
Ambassador appointed Jan. 30, 2001
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented February 2001
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Policy of controlled engagement toward Democratic Republic of Korea; official bilateral contact limited to subjects concerning regional security concerns; the human rights and humanitarian situation in North Korea; inter-Korean relations; and consular issues; all government-to-government co-operation and communication on topics not covered under the Controlled Engagement Policy suspended Oct. 28, 2010.
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada News Release no. 347
http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2010/347.aspx?lang=eng 
See also:  http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/koreacoree/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canada-dprkorea-rpdcoree.aspx?lang=eng&ga=2.15858358.1017121497.1507759303-1146838460.1489722005     

Kosovo
Diplomatic recognition of independent Kosovo March 18, 2008
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada News Release no. 59 (March 18, 2008)
See also Government of Canada. “Canada-Croatia Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/croatia-croatie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/index.aspx?lang=eng
Ambassador appointed March 5, 2009
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Kuwait
Ambassador appointed March 5, 1965; ambassador to Iran accredited as ambassador to Kuwait.
Credentials presented April 27, 1965
E.A. Annual Report 1965, pp. 20, 36, 69
External Affairs 17 (1965), p. 410
Ambassador appointed June 23, 1978
E.A. Communiqué no. 61 (June 23, 1978), p. 4
Canadian embassy in Kuwait City opened in April 1978 under a chargé d’affaires a.i.;  embassy in Kuwait formally established on Oct. 25, 1978
E.A. Communiqué, no. 14 (Feb. 16, 1978)
E.A. Annual Review, 1978, p. 86
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 104
Embassy temporarily closed Oct. 22, 1990; re-opened March 1991
E.A. Annual Report 1990/91, p. 44

Kyrgyzstan (Republic of)
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 17, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 35 (Feb. 17, 1992)
Ambassador to Moscow concurrently accredited to Kyrgyzstan Feb. 17, 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)

Lao People’s Democratic Republic
(see Laos)

Laos
Decision to recognize Laos as an associated state of Indo-China within the French union
Dec. 30, 1952
E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 24
E.A. Press Release no. 84 (Dec. 30, 1952)
Diplomatic relations established June 15, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 106
Ambassador appointed Sept. 24, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 106
Credentials presented Nov. 21, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 106
[On Dec. 2, 1975, Laos renamed Lao People’s Democratic Republic]

Laos/ICSC
Commissioner appointed Aug. 17, 1954
In 1954, Canada became a member of the International Commissions for Supervision and Control (ICSC) in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, set up to supervise the provisions of the Geneva Agreement.  In 1973, these commissions were superseded by a new four-power International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS), composed of Canada, Hungary, Indonesia and Poland, to supervise the second armistice in Vietnam.  Canada withdrew from it on June 29, 1973.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 105
International Perspectives May/June 1973, p. 14

Latvia
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 26, 1991
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 182 (Aug. 26, 1991)
Ambassador appointed Sept. 6, 1991
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 190 (Sept. 6, 1991)
Credentials presented Oct. 11, 1991
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Canadian Embassy established Dec. 13, 1991
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 181 (Aug. 23, 1991); News Release no. 190 (Aug. 23, 1991); News Release no. 261 (Nov. 21, 1991); News Release no. 285 (Dec. 13, 1991); and no. 18 (Jan. 20, 1992) “Backgrounder: Canadian Offices in the Baltic States”

League of Nations
Canadian advisory officer appointed Dec. 17, 1924
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 107
Report of the Secretary of State for External Affairs 1930, p. 17

Lebanon
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 26, 1954
E.A. Press Release, no. 52 (Aug. 26, 1954)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 109
Chargé d’affaires a.i. appointed Oct. 19, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 108
E.A. Annual Report, 1954, p. 16
E.A. Press Release no. 71 (Oct. 21, 1954)
Credentials presented Feb. 23, 1955
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 108
Embassy established [Nov. 17] September 1958; legation raised to embassy status
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 108
E.A. Press Release, no. 44 (Sept. 5, 1958)
Ambassador appointed Sept. 15, 1958
E.A. Press Release no. 47 (Sept. 15, 1958), p. 2       
In March 1976, all Canadian embassy staff were removed, because of dangerous conditions in Lebanon.  Diplomatic relations were continued between Lebanon and Canada.  Embassy re-opened in August 1977. On June 14, 1985 a provisional withdrawal of all embassy staff.  (See E.A. Communiqué no. 81, June 14, 1984) Diplomatic relations with Lebanon continued through Canadian embassy in Jordan.  Since July 1987, diplomatic representation to Lebanon under the direction of a chargé d’affaires a.i. in Syria.  An ambassador was accredited to Syria, but the Lebanese government refused to give its agreement to a non-resident Canadian ambassador in Lebanon. 
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 109
See also E.A. Communiqué no. 035 (Feb. 18, 1987)
E.A. Annual Report 1985/86, p. 43

Leeward Islands
High commission to Leeward Islands established in Barbados, 1973
E.A. Annual Review, 1973, p. 24
See also Trinidad and Tobago; Federation of the West Indies

Lesotho (formerly known as Basutoland)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Lesotho Oct. 4, 1966
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, p. 38
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 110
External Affairs 18 (1966), p. 512
High commissioner appointed April 4, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 110
Credentials presented April 27, 1967; Canadian ambassador to South Africa concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Lesotho
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 110

Liberia
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 24, 1971
E.A. Annual Report, 1971, p. 112
E.A. Communiqué, no. 89 (Nov. 19, 1971)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 111
Ambassador appointed Nov. 4, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 111
Credentials presented Nov. 25, 1971; ambassador to the Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire) accredited as ambassador to Liberia.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 111
E.A. Annual Report 1971, p. 4
E.A. Communiqué no. 50 (June 29, 1972)           

Libya
Diplomatic relations established in 1968
E.A. Annual Report, 1968, pp. 16, 80
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 112  
Ambassador appointed July 19, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 112
Credentials presented Oct. 26, 1968; embassy to Libya established in Tunisia
External Affairs 21 (1969), p. 134
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 112
“After the military coup that installed Colonel Muamar al-Qaddafi in power, the Canadian Ambassador was required to submit his Letters of Credence, which took place on 31 August 1970.   In 1972, Canadian diplomatic representation to Libya changed from Tunisia to Egypt.  Subsequently, the Ambassador could not present his credentials because of the Libyan authorities’ objection to receiving non-resident Heads of Mission.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 112
Establishment of Canadian embassy in Libya June 28, 2001
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 90 (June 28, 2001)
Statement that Libyan people are legitimately represented by the National Transitional Council
Press Release no. 205 (July 15, 2011)
Canadian staff temporarily withdrawn from embassy in Libya July 29, 2014
http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2014/07/29a.aspx?lang=eng 
Canadian embassy in Libya temporarily suspended operations; embassy operating remotely from Canadian embassy in Tunisia; diplomatic relations with Libya not suspended June 12, 2015
Government of Canada statement “Embassy of Canada to Libya”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/libya-libye/index.aspx?lang=eng

Liechtenstein
Ambassador appointed March 12, 1996
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=en
Credentials presented May 20, 1996
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Lithuania
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 26, 1991
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 182 (Aug. 26, 1991)
Ambassador appointed Sept. 5, 1991
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Oct. 10, 1991
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 33 (Feb. 10, 1991), no. 181 (Aug. 23, 1991) and no. 190 (Sept. 6, 1991)
Embassy established Jan. 20, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 18 (Jan 20, 1992) and “Backgrounder: Canadian Offices in the Baltic States”         

Luxembourg
Diplomatic recognition in 1945
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 113
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 22, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 113
Credentials presented Jan. 3, 1945
E.A. Annual Report, 1945, p. 17
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 113

Macedonia [Republic of North Macedonia; (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)]
Diplomatic relations between Canada and Yugoslavia established Feb. 9, 1942; Canadian legation to Yugoslavian government-in-exile in London established Nov. 30, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 214
Diplomatic recognition of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia July 3, 1996
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 122 (July 3, 1996)
See also Parliament of Canada, 39-1, Bill C-443    
Ambassador to Yugoslavia concurrently accredited to Macedonia, resident in Belgrade, 1996
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Ambassador appointed July 10, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng          

Madagascar [Democratic Republic of Madagascar; formerly Malagasy Republic]
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 7, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 114
E.A. Press Release, no. 2, 1965
Ambassador appointed July 18, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 114
Credentials presented Nov. 16, 1967; embassy established in Ethiopia
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, pp. 22, 84
External Affairs 20 (1968), pp. 234-37
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 114
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1970, p. 107        

Malawi (formerly known as Nyasaland)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Malawi July 6, 1964
E.A. Annual Report, 1964, p. 34
E.A. Press Release no. 43 (July 2, 1964)
External Affairs 16 (1964), pp. 390-395
Diplomatic relations established November 1973 (Feb. 12, 1974?)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 115
E.A. Communiqué no. 17 (Feb. 12, 1974)
High commissioner appointed Dec. 18, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 115
Credentials presented Feb. 12, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 115
E.A. Communiqué no. 17 (Feb. 12, 1974) 

Malaya
Diplomatic recognition Aug. 31, 1957
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 116
E.A. Annual Report, 1957, p. 10
E.A. Press Release no. 40 (July 26, 1957); no. 44 (Aug. 16, 1957); no. 45 (Aug. 29, 1957)
External Affairs 9 (1957), pp. 254, 301-306
High commissioner appointed Dec. 31, 1957
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 116
E.A. Press Release no. 70 (Dec. 13, 1957)
Credentials presented March 29, 1958
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 116

Malaysia (formerly known as Malaya)
Diplomatic recognition of Malaysia Sept. 16, 1963
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 29
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 117
E.A. Press Release no. A.51 (Sept. 3, 1963)  
“On 16 Sept., 1963, Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (Sabah) joined to form the Federation of Malaysia.  Singapore withdrew on 9 August 1965.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 117
High commission to Malaysia established in Kuala Lumpur in 1963.
External Affairs 15 (1963), pp. 252, 398-402
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 117

Maldives
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 14, 1981
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 118
E.A. Communiqué no. 123[B] (Dec. 14, 1981)
Ambassador appointed Nov. 19, 1981
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 118
E.A. Communiqué no. 123[B] (Dec. 14, 1981)
Credentials presented Jan. 7, 1982
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 118
“On 9 July 1982, it was announced that Maldives had become a member of the Commonwealth with special status”; Canada’s head of post changed from ambassador to high commission.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 118

Mali
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 7, 1963
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 22
E.A. Press Release, no. A[1] (Jan. 7, 1963)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 119
Ambassador appointed May 11, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 119
Credentials presented July 4, 1969; embassy to Mali established in Senegal
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 119

Malta
Diplomatic recognition of independent Malta Sept. 21, 1964
E.A. Press Release, no. 66 (Sept. 18, 1964)
External Affairs 16 (1964), pp. 538-541
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 23, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 120      
E.A. Press Release no. 93 (Dec. 23, 1964)
High commissioner appointed Nov. 20, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 120
Credentials presented Jan. 12, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 120           

Marshall Islands (Republic of)
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 14, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Ambassador appointed Jan. 7, 2000; high commissioner to Australia concurrently accredited as ambassador to Republic of Marshall Islands
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented May 22, 2002
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Martinique
See “Windward Islands”

Mauritania
Diplomatic relations established in 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 121       
Ambassador appointed May 11, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 121
See also E.A. Press Release no. 70 (Nov. 27, 1969)
Credentials presented Dec. 12, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 121
E.A. Annual Report, 1968, pp. 16, 80
External Affairs 21 (1969), p. 221       

Mauritius
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 27, 1967 (date of independence)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 122
External Affairs 20 (1968), pp. 306-309
High commissioner appointed Sept. 11, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 122
E.A. Press Release no. 63 (Oct. 31, 1969)
Credentials presented April 27, 1970; high commission established in Tanzania
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 122

Mexico
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 30, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 123
Ambassador appointed March 3, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 123
Credentials presented April 27, 1944
E.A. Annual Report, 1944, p. 21
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 123

Micronesia (Federated States of)
Diplomatic relations established March 3, 1998
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
High commissioner to Australia concurrently accredited as ambassador to Micronesia, resident in Canberra, Australia
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Moldova (Republic of)
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 20, 1992
External Affairs and International Trade Canada News Release no. 37 (Feb. 20, 1992)
Ambassador to Romania concurrently accredited to Republic of Moldova
External Affairs and International Trade Canada News Release no. 37 (Feb. 20, 1992)
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Monaco
Ambassador appointed Feb. 13, 2008
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented April 10, 2008
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Diplomatic Recognition in an Inter-Dependent World: Emerging Themes (Policy Staff Planning Paper 91/6) Ottawa:  External Affairs and External Trade Canada, 1991, p. 9 regarding Canadian diplomatic recognition of Monaco
http://dfait-aeci.canadiana.ca/view/ooe.b251512xE/10?r=0&s=1

Mongolia
Diplomatic recognition [March 4, 1964]*
Diplomatic relations established Nov. 30, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 124
E.A. Communiqué, no. 113, 1974
See also International Perspectives May/June 1972, pp. 30-31 [diplomatic relations established in 1972?]
Ambassador appointed Nov. 15, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 124
Credentials presented May 11, 1974; ambassador to the U.S.S.R. concurrently accredited as ambassador to Mongolia, resident in the U.S.S.R. 
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 124
E.A. Annual Report, 1974, p. 21

Montenegro
(State Union of Serbia and Montenegro created 2003, disbanded May 21, 2006; Serbia and Montenegro became independent states; see also Serbia)
Diplomatic recognition June 2006
Government of Canada. “Canada-Montenegro Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/Serbia-serbie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadamontenegro-montenegro.aspx?lang=eng&menuid=37)
Diplomatic relations established September 2006
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/Serbia-serbie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadamontenegro-montenegro.aspx?lang=eng&menuid=37)
Ambassador appointed Feb. 26, 2007
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng                     

Montserrat
Commissioner appointed Dec. 22, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post, p. 125
Credentials presented May 29, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post, p. 125

Morocco
De jure diplomatic recognition June 19, 1956
E.A. Annual Report, 1956, p. 18
E.A. Press Release no. 40 (June 20, 1956); no. 67 (Oct. 15, 1956)
External Affairs 8 (1956), pp. 178-181
Diplomatic relations established May 17, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 126
Ambassador appointed Jan. 25, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 126
Credentials presented Sept. 7, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 126
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 48
Canadian embassy established in Morocco on Sept. 16, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 126
E.A. Annual Review, 1974, p. 99
E.A. Press Release no. 40 (June 10, 1974), p. 2

Mozambique
Diplomatic recognition June 25, 1975
E.A. Communiqué no. 41 (June 11, 1975)
See also E.A. Statement Sept. 22, 1975; E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 75/30
(Oct. 23, 1975); no. 75/39 (Nov. 26, 1975)
Diplomatic relations established June 25, 1975 (date of independence)
E.A. Annual Report, 1975, p. 7
E.A. Communiqué no. 23 (April 11, 1975); no. 41 (June 11, 1975)
E.A. Statement April 29, 1975, p. 5
Ambassador appointed Dec. 2, 1975
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 127
Credentials presented April 17, 1976; embassy established in Zambia
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 127

Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction Talks
(Created in 1973 among member countries of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, to conduct negotiations aimed at reducing the level of the potential for armed confrontation between these two military alliances; Conference on the Mutual Reduction of Forced and Armaments Measures in Central Europe opened on Oct. 30, 1974)
Ambassador and head of delegation appointed Oct. 30, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 128
Canadian Representatives Abroad, January 1973, p. 7                                 

Myanmar (formerly known as Burma)
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 9, 1958
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 129
Debates, 1958, III, p. 3283
E.A. Press Release no. 39 (Aug. 8, 1958)
Ambassador appointed July 1958
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 129
Credentials presented Sept. 3, 1958; high commissioner to Malaya concurrently appointed as ambassador to Myanmar
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 129
Announcement that embassy would be established in Myanmar, July 2012
Ambassador appointed March 26, 2013; credentials presented Aug. 14, 2013
Government of Canada. “Embassy of Canada to Burma (Myanmar)”
http://canadainternational.gc.ca/burma-birmanie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/index.aspx?lang=eng
See also Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Namibia
[Namibian independence March 21, 1990] 
Diplomatic recognition of independent Namibia March 21, 1990
E.A. News Release no. 048 (March 12, 1990)
E.A. Statement no. 90/16 (March 20, 1990), p. 1
See also E.A. Annual Report 1988/89, p. 57
High commission established March 21, 1990
E.A. Statement no. 90/16 (March 20, 1990), p. 2
High commissioner appointed March 15, 1990
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also E.A. News Release no. 200 (Sept. 11, 1990), p. [3]
Credentials presented Oct. 17, 1990
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
(See also External Affairs and International Trade Canada Annual Report 1988/89, p. 57)

Nauru
Diplomatic recognition of independent Nauru Jan. 31, 1968
External Affairs 20 (1968), pp. 147-152
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1969, p. 11                     

Nepal
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 18, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 130
E.A. Press Release no. 4 (Jan. 18, 1965)
High commissioner appointed Dec. 23, 1964
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 130
E.A. Press Release no. 10 (Feb. 24, 1965)
Credentials presented April 28, 1965
External Affairs 17 (1965), pp. 300-302
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, p. 81
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 130

Netherlands
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 3, 1939
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Dec. 22, 1938; legation established
Credentials presented Feb. 24, 1939
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1941, p. 8 (legation established Oct. 18, 1939)
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Legation closed May 10, 1940 (four days after Germany’s occupation of the Netherlands, and the departure of Queen Wilhelmina and the government for London)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 132
E.A.  Annual Report 1940, pp. 12, 21; Annual Report 1941, pp. 8, 18
“By October 1942, Ottawa [concluded] that the matter of Canada’s relations with the Allied Governments then in exile in London should be handled by an Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, who should reside in London and be formally accredited to each of them, i.e. Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 132
E.A. Annual Report, 1942, pp. 5, 10; Annual Report 1943, pp. 12-13
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Canadian legation in The Hague re-opened on Oct. 29, 1945; raised to embassy status on March 19, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 132
E.A. Annual Report, 1945, p. 25
Credentials presented April 1, 1945
E.A. Annual Report, 1945, p. 25

New Zealand
Diplomatic relations established Sept. 11, 1939 (high commission in New Zealand also covers the Cook Islands and Niue as part of its region of responsibility but is not formally accredited to either)
E.A. Annual Report, 1939, p. 15
Debates, 1939 (Special Session), p. 117
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
High commissioner appointed Feb. 1, 1940
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 134
E.A. Annual Report, 1940, p. 14
See also External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Credentials presented March 6, 1940
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 134
E.A. Annual Report, 1940, p. 14
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Newfoundland
Diplomatic relations established in July 1941
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 133
High commissioner appointed July 31, 1941
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 133
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Credentials presented Sept. 11, 1941
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 133
Debates, 1941-42, IV, p. 4123
E.A. Annual Report, 1941, p. 11
Office of high commissioner closed on March 31, 1949, when Newfoundland entered Confederation
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 133
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, pp. 16-17
External Affairs 2 (1960), p. 108         

Nicaragua
Diplomatic relations established in June 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 135
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 60, 394 [Jan. 20, 1961]
Ambassador appointed March 16, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 135
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 145, 394
Credentials presented Sept. 4, 1961
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, pp. 29, 43
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 135
Diplomatic recognition of new government July 24, 1979
E.A. Communiqué, no. 57, 1979
E.A. Annual Review, 1979, p. 49
Embassy established Sept. 12, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 135

Niger
Diplomatic relations established April 27, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 136
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962)
Ambassador appointed Jan. 25, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 136
Credentials presented Oct. 9, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 136
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 48
See also External Affairs 22 (1970), p. 229           

Nigeria
Diplomatic recognition (forthcoming) of independent Nigeria Sept. 29, 1960
E.A. Press Release no. 72 (Sept. 26, 1960)
E.A. Annual Report 1963, p. 28
Diplomatic relations established Oct. 1, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 137
Debates, 1959, V, p. 5711 (announcement of intent)
External Affairs 12 (1960), pp. 578-583
Commissioner appointed Jan. 28, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 137
Credentials presented Oct. 10, 1960
E.A. Annual Report, 1960, pp. 23, 43
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 137
High commissioner appointed March 8, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 137
Coup d’état Jan. 1, 1984; diplomatic recognition of new government [January 1984]*
See also Timothy M. Shaw, “Nigerian Coups and Foreign Policy,” International Perspectives November/December 1985, pp. 17-18.

North Atlantic Council (a permanent body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Ambassador appointed March 18, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 138
Credentials presented May 22, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 138

Norway
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 9, 1942
Debates, 1942, I, p. 401
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 140
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 5, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 139
Legation in Norway established in London Nov. 30, 1942
E.A. Annual Report 1942, pp. 5, 17
Credentials presented Sept.9, 1943
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 140
“From 20 Dec. 1943 until the end of the war, diplomatic relations with the Allied Governments in Exile were handled by Chargé d’Affaires.  Following the liberation of Norway on 8 May 1945, permanent Legations were established in Canada and Norway.  The Legation became an Embassy on 4 Aug. 1955.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 140
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Legation established in Norway Feb. 11, 1946
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 139
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1946, p. 21
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Jan. 21, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 139
Credentials presented by ambassador Aug. 4, 1955
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 139
See also E.A. Press Release no. 49 (June 30, 1955)

Nyasaland
See Malawi
[Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland formed 1962; dissolved Dec. 31, 1963]         

Oman
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 2, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 141
E.A. Communiqué no. 12 (Feb. 2, 1974)
E.A. Statements and Speeches 74/3 (March 19, 1974), p. 3
E.A. Annual Review 1973, p. 9
Ambassador appointed Feb. 26, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 141
Credentials presented Nov. 10, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 141

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
[Initially named Organisation for European Economic Co-operation; current name Sept. 30, 1961]
Representative appointed Sept. 14, 1950
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 143
Permanent representative appointed Feb. 16, 1962
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Ambassador appointed July 8, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 143
Credentials presented Aug. 29, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 143

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Ambassador and head of delegation appointed 1993; permanent representative appointed July 10, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
Permanent representative appointed April 17, 2001
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Sept. 22, 2010
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Organization of American States
[formerly known as the Pan-American Union]
Canadian mission established Jan. 21, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 142
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Popup.aspx
Ambassador and permanent representative appointed Feb. 2, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 142
E.A. Communiqué no. 5 (Feb. 2, 1972)
E.A. Statement March 24, 1972, p. 2; Statement April 15, 1972, p. 2
E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 72/10, p. 7
Credentials presented Aug. 28, 1972
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 142
E.A. Annual Review, 1972, p. 38

Pakistan
High commissioner appointed Dec. 8, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 145
E.A. Press Release no. 80 (Dec. 2, 1949)
Credentials presented; high commission established Jan. 20, 1950
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 145
E.A. Annual Report, 1950, pp. 1, 2, 4
Canadian Representatives Abroad, March 1950, p. 9
External Affairs 2 (1950), pp. 29, 66
Diplomatic recognition of Republic of Pakistan March 23, 1956
E.A. Annual Report, 1956, p. 13
(Pakistan left the Commonwealth Jan. 30, 1971)

Palau
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 27, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada-Palau Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/australia-australie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadapalau-palaos.aspx?lang=eng 
Ambassador appointed 1998; Canadian high commissioner in Australia concurrently appointed as ambassador to Palau
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Feb. 15, 2007
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Panama
Diplomatic recognition Sept. 29, 1952
E.A. Press Release, no. 62 (Sept. 29, 1952)
Diplomatic relations established June 1961
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 147
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 60, 394 [diplomatic relations established Jan. 20, 1961]
Ambassador appointed March 16, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 147
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 143, 394 [ambassador appointed March 10, 1961]
Credentials presented Aug. 11, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 147
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, pp. 29, 43
See also E. A. Annual Review, 1980, p. 7           

Papua New Guinea
Diplomatic recognition in 1975
E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 75/39 (Nov. 26, 1975)
E.A. Annual Review 1975, p. 35
Diplomatic relations established effectively Sept. 16, 1975 (date of Papua New Guinea’s independence)           
High commissioner appointed Oct. 7, 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 148
Credentials presented Nov. 8, 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 148

Paraguay
Diplomatic relations established in 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 149
E.A. Annual Report 1961, p. 29
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 165
Ambassador appointed Feb. 5, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 149
E.A. Press Release no. 27 (April 24, 1961)
Credentials presented July 5, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 149

People’s Republic of China
See China (People’s Republic of China)           

Peru
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 30, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 150
Ambassador appointed June 21, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 150
Credentials presented Oct. 21, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 150
E.A. Annual Report, 1944, p. 22
Debates, 1944, VI, pp. 5507, 5917
Diplomatic recognition of new government Aug. 7, 1962
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 31

Philippines
Diplomatic recognition of independent Philippines July 4, 1945
External Affairs 5 (1953), p. 342
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 4, 1949; consulate general established
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 151
E.A. Annual Report, 1950, p. 17
External Affairs 5 (1953), p. 342
Chargé d’affaires i.a. appointed Aug. 10, 1972; consulate general given embassy status
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 151
Credentials presented Aug. 21, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 151
E.A. Communiqué, no. 58 (Aug. 10, 1972)           

Poland
Diplomatic relations with Polish government-in-exile established Feb. 9, 1942
Debates, 1942, I, p. 401
See also Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 5, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 152
Legation to Poland established in London Nov. 30, 1942
E.A. Annual Report, 1942, pp. 5, 17
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Credentials presented Sept. 9, 1943
“Diplomatic relations between Canada and Poland were first established with the Polish government in exile in London on 9 February 1942.  By October 1942, the Canadian Government decided that Canada’s relations with the Allied Governments then in exile should be handled by an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, who should reside in London, and be formally accredited to each of them.  On 6 July 1945, Canada officially recognized the Provisional Government of National Unity in Poland and withdrew recognition from the authorities in London.  A Legation was established in Warsaw on 7 May 1947.  In view of the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia, [the ambassador] was instructed not to present his credentials.  The Chargé d’Affaires a.i. with the personal rank of Minister Plenipotentiary … presented his letter of introduction on 26 September 1950.  On 24 May 1960, the Legation in Warsaw was raised to Embassy Status."
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 153
E.A. Press Release no. 41 (April 28, 1960)
External Affairs 12 (1960), p. 672

Portugal
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Dec. 8, 1951
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 155
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 18, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 155
See also Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
E.A. Press Release, no. 2 (Jan. 18, 1952)
Credentials presented Feb. 6, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 155
Legation established on April 20, 1953; embassy established on April 20, 1955
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 155
E.A. Press Release, no. 7, 1955
See also E.A. Annual Report 1952, p. 35

Qatar
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 2, 1974
E.A. Communiqué, no. 12 (Feb. 2, 1974)
E.A. Statements and Speeches 74/3 (March 19, 1974), p. 3
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 156
E.A. Annual Review 1973, p. 9
Ambassador appointed Feb. 26, 1974; ambassador to Iran concurrently accredited as ambassador to Qatar
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 156
Credentials presented May 9, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 156
In 1977, ambassador did not present his credentials, due to the rapidly evolving political situation in Iran.  July 20, 1978 Canadian ambassador, resident in Kuwait, accredited as ambassador to Qatar.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 156

Republic of North Macedonia (see Macedonia)

Rhodesia (see Zimbabwe)

Romania
Peace treaty with Romania Sept. 19, 1947
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 8
Diplomatic relations established April 4, 1967; Canadian ambassador to Yugoslavia accredited as ambassador to Romania
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 157
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 26
E.A. Press Release, no. 13 (April 4, 1967), no. 19 (May 9, 1967) and no. 39 (Aug. 17, 1967)
External Affairs 19 (1967), pp. 182-83, 281-282
Ambassador appointed July 26, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 157
E.A. Press Release, no. 39 (Aug. 17, 1967)
Credentials presented Jan. 19, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 157
Embassy established in Romania Aug. 31, 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 157

Russian Federation (created Dec. 26, 1991, after U.S.S.R. was dissolved)
Recognition of Russia as the continuation of the U.S.S.R.
External Affairs and International Trade Canada “Visit to Canada by Boris Yeltsin,
President of Russia, June 18-20, 1992: Briefing Book”, p. 7
Ambassador appointed Sept. 12, 1990
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also E.A. News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Credentials presented Sept. 26, 1996
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Rwanda
Diplomatic recognition of independent Rwanda July 1, 1962
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 231
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 158
Ambassador appointed June 27, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 158
Credentials presented July 8, 1967; Canadian ambassador to Zaire concurrently accredited as ambassador to Rwanda
External Affairs 20 (1968), pp. 120-121
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 158

Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 27, 1967
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 20
See also External Affairs 19 (1967), pp. 128-130
Diplomatic recognition of independent Saint Kitts and Nevis Sept. 19, 1983
E.A. Communiqué, no. 119, 1983
See also Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
High commissioner appointed Oct. 13, 1983
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 159
Credentials presented Feb. 21, 1984; Canadian high commissioner to Barbados concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Saint Kitts and Nevis
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 159
See also E.A. Annual Report 1983-84, p. 31           
See also West Indies Associated States                     

Saint Lucia
Diplomatic relations established 1967
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 20
See also External Affairs 19 (1967), pp. 128-130
Diplomatic recognition of independent Saint Lucia Feb. 22, 1979
E.A. Communiqué, no. 17 (Feb. 19, 1979)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 160
High commissioner appointed Dec. 21, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 160
Credentials presented Feb. 22, 1979; Canadian high commissioner to Barbados concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Saint Lucia
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 160           
See also West Indies Associated States; Windward Islands

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Diplomatic relations established 1969
E.A. Annual Report, 1969, p. 17
Diplomatic recognition of independent Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Oct. 27, 1979
E.A. Communiqué, no. 81 (Oct. 25, 1979)
High commissioner appointed Sept. 16, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 161
Credentials presented Oct. 27, 1979; Canadian high commissioner to Barbados concurrently accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 161
See also West Indies Associated States; Windward Islands

Samoa 
(prior to 1997 known as Western Samoa)
Diplomatic relations established June 11, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 210      
External Affairs 23 (1971), p. 389
High commissioner appointed May 6, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 210
Dept. of External Affairs Communiqué no. 44 (June 11, 1971)
Credentials presented Aug. 19, 1971; Canadian high commissioner to New Zealand concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Western Samoa
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 210
E.A. Annual Report, 1971, p. 12
External Affairs 23 (1971), p. 389             

San Marino
Diplomatic relations established in 1960, at consular level
Government of Canada.  “Canada – San Marino Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/italy-italie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadasanmarino-saintmarin.aspx?lang=eng
Full diplomatic relations established in 1997, embassy to San Marino located in Canadian embassy in Rome
Government of Canada. “Canada – San Marino Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/italy-italie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadasanmarino-saintmarin.aspx?lang=eng
Ambassador appointed April 2, 1998
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Canadian Representatives Abroad, March 1998, p. 96
Credentials presented Sept. 30, 2006
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Saõ Tomé and Principe
Diplomatic recognition in 1975
E.A. Annual Review, 1975, p. 7
E.A. Statement 75/29 (Sept. 22, 1975)
E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 75/30 (Oct. 23, 1975); no. 75/39 (Nov. 26, 1975)
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 13, 1978; ambassador to Cameroon concurrently accredited as ambassador to Saõ Tomé and Principe, resident in Cameroon
E.A. Communiqué, no. 19 (Dec. 13, 1978)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 162
Ambassador appointed Dec. 6, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 162
Credentials presented June 4, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 162

Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic relations established May 8, 1973
E.A. Communiqué, no. 47 (May 8, 1973)
E.A. Annual Review, 1973, p. 9
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 163
Ambassador appointed May 17, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 163
Credentials presented June 24, 1973; ambassador to Lebanon concurrently accredited as ambassador to Saudi Arabia
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 163
E.A. Annual Review, 1973, p. 86
Embassy in Saudi Arabia established Nov. 24, 1974
E.A. Annual Review, 1974, p. 99
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 163
See also E.A. Communiqué, no. 128 (Nov. 29, 1976)
Announcement of intent:  E.A. Annual Review, 1973, p. 9 and
E.A. Communiqué no. 122 (Dec. 21, 1973)
E.A. Statements and Speeches 74/3 (March 19, 1974), p. 3

Senegal
Diplomatic relations established in 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 164
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
Ambassador appointed March 8, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 164
Credentials presented June 1, 1962; Canadian ambassador to Nigeria concurrently accredited as ambassador to Senegal
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 164
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 48
Canadian embassy in Senegal established July 11, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 164
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, p. 38
E.A. Press Release, no. 37, 1966
See also External Affairs 17 (1965), p. 453; External Affairs 18 (1966), pp. 399-401

Serbia
Ambassador appointed Feb. 26, 2007
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada-Serbia Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/serbia-serbie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadaserbia-serbie.aspx?lang=eng

Serbia and Montenegro
(State Union of Serbia and Montenegro created 2003, disbanded May 21, 2006; Serbia and Montenegro became independent states; see also Montenegro)
Ambassador appointed July 2, 2002
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada-Serbia Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/serbia-serbie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadaserbia-serbie.aspx?lang=eng

Seychelles
Diplomatic recognition of independent Seychelles June 26, 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 165
E.A. Communiqué no. 58 (June 11, 1976)
E.A. Annual Review 1976, p. 5
High commissioner appointed July 13, 1976
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 165
Credentials presented July 1, 1976; Canadian high commissioner to Tanzania concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Seychelles
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 165
E.A. Annual Review, 1976, pp. 5, 89

Sierra Leone
Diplomatic recognition April 27, 1961
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 14, 1961)
Diplomatic relations established April 27, 1961 (date of Sierra Leone’s independence)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 166
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 199-204
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 44
High commissioner appointed June 13, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 166
E.A. Press Release no. 20 (April 7, 1961); Press Release no. 23 (April 14, 1961)
Credentials presented April 24, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 166
See also External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 199-204
Re-accreditation occurred April 19, 1971 following the proclamation of Sierra Leone as a republic
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 166

Singapore
(formerly part of Malaysia (formed on Sept. 16, 1963); Singapore became independent on Aug. 9, 1965)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Singapore Aug. 9, 1965
External Affairs 17 (1965), p. 409
Diplomatic relations established March 7, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 167
Credentials presented March 7, 1966; Canadian high commissioner to Malaysia concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Singapore
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 167
External Affairs 18 (1966), p. 202
High commissioner appointed Dec. 14, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 167
See also Malaysia

Slovakia (Slovak Republic; formerly part of Czechoslovakia)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Slovakia Dec. 31, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 249 (Dec. 31, 1992)
Ambassador appointed Jan. 5, 1993
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 3 (Jan. 6, 1993)
Credentials presented Sept. 11, 1997
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Slovenia
Diplomatic recognition Jan. 15, 1992 
Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs 1992, p. 102
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 159 (July 28, 1992), p. 3
Ambassador appointed June 23, 1993
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 137 (June 24, 1993)
Credentials presented March 31, 1992 
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Solomon Islands
Diplomatic relations established July 7, 1978 (date of independence of Solomon Islands)
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 168
E.A. Communiqué no. 65 (July 7, 1978)
High commissioner appointed June 19, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 168
Credentials presented July 7, 1978; Canadian high commissioner to Australia concurrently accredited as high commissioner to the Solomon Islands
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 168
E.A. Communiqué no. 65 (July 7, 1978)

Somalia (Republic of Somalia)
(Union of British Somaliland and Italian Somalia July 1, 1960)
Diplomatic recognition June 26 [July 1?] 1960
External Affairs 12 (1960), pp. 723-729
Diplomatic relations established 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 169
Ambassador appointed March 20, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 169
Credentials presented June 23, 1968; Canadian ambassador to Ethiopia concurrently accredited as ambassador to Somalia
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 169
E.A. Annual Report, 1968, pp. 16, 80
External Affairs 20 (1968), pp. 378-382
Embassy established in Somalia (announcement) Jan. 7, 1974
E.A. Communiqué no. 1, 1974
In 1974, post of accreditation transferred from Ethiopia to Tanzania, due to a break in Ethiopia-Somalia relations; Canadian ambassador to Kenya concurrently accredited as ambassador to Somalia

South Africa
Diplomatic relations established Sept. 11, 1939
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 171
E.A. Annual Report, 1939, pp. 15, 19
High commissioner appointed Jan. 18, 1940
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 171
See also External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Credentials presented Feb. 1,  1940; Canadian high commission formally established May 17, 1940; on May 31, 1961 South Africa left the Commonwealth and became a republic; Canadian head of post  designated as ambassador
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 172
External Affairs 13 (1961), pp. 151-155
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, pp. 23-24
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 48

South Sudan (Republic of)
Diplomatic recognition July 9, 2011
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada News Release no. 196 (July 11, 2011)
Diplomatic relations with the Republic of South Sudan established following the latter’s independence on July 9, 2011; diplomatic mission for South Sudan located in Canadian embassy in Kenya
Government of Canada. “Canada – South Sudan Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/kenya/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/Canada-SouthSudanduSud.aspx
Embassy established in South Sudan Sept. 26, 2014
http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2014/09/26a.aspx?lang=eng

South Vietnam (Republic of)
Diplomatic recognition and diplomatic relations established July 30, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 173
E.A. Communiqué no. 72 (July 30, 1973)
E.A. Annual Report 1973, p. 13
Ambassador appointed Nov. 23, 1973
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 173
On April 30, 1975 the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam gained complete sovereignty over all of South Vietnam; on June 27, 1975 diplomatic relations were established at the level of ambassador; on July 2, 1976 North and South Vietnam officially reunified; the former territory of the Republic of South Vietnam absorbed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 173
See also Vietnam (ICSC) and Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)

Spain
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 21, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 174
E.A. Press Release no. 8 (Feb. 21, 1953)
Ambassador appointed Oct. 14, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 174
E.A. Press Release no. 65 (Oct. 8, 1953)
Credentials presented Dec. 10, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 174
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 11                     

Sri Lanka
(formerly Ceylon; Ceylon renamed Sri Lanka May 22, 1972)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Ceylon Feb. 4, 1948
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 175
E.A. Press Release no. 14 (Feb. 3, 1948)
High commissioner appointed Feb. 19, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 175
E.A. Press Release no. 13 (March 3, 1953)
E.A. Annual Report 1953, p. 5
External Affairs 1953, p. 181 (appointment effective April 14, 1953)
High commission established June 1953
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 5
External Affairs 1953, p. 257
Credentials presented Aug. 20, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 175         

Sudan
Diplomatic recognition Jan. 6, 1957
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 396
Diplomatic relations established May 29, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 176
Ambassador appointed March 6, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 176
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 238
Credentials presented Aug. 20, 1961; Canadian ambassador to Egypt concurrently accredited as ambassador to Sudan
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 176
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 44
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 396

Suriname (formerly Dutch Guyana)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Suriname Nov. 25, 1975
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 177
E.A. Statements and Speeches no. 75/39 (Nov. 26, 1975)
E.A. Communiqué no. 113 (Nov. 27, 1975)
Ambassador appointed Dec. 2, 1975
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 177
E.A. Communiqué, no. 113 (Nov. 27, 1975)
Credentials presented Nov. 25, 1975; Canadian high commissioner to Guyana concurrently accredited as ambassador to Suriname
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 177
E.A. Annual Review, 1975, p. 27

Swaziland
Diplomatic recognition Sept. 6, 1968 (date of independence)
External Affairs 20 (1968), pp. 401-402
E.A. Annual Report 1968, pp. 1, 11, 16
Diplomatic relations established in 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 178
E.A. Annual Report, 1969, p. 19
High commissioner appointed Sept. 6, 1968
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 178
Credentials presented Feb. 10, 1969; Canadian ambassador to South Africa concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Swaziland
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 178
E.A. Annual Report, 1970, p. 108
External Affairs 21 (1969), p. 190

Sweden
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 4, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 179
Debates, 1943, V, pp. 4686-87; 1944, VI, p. 5917
E.A. Annual Report, 1944, p. 39
Chargé d’affaires i.a. appointed March 21, 1947; Canadian legation established
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 179
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Feb. 9, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 179
E.A. Press Release no. 13 (Feb. 24, 1949) and
Press Release no. 24 (April 8, 1949)
Credentials presented June 10, 1949
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 179
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 88
Canadian diplomatic mission raised to the status of embassy March 16, 1956
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 179
E.A. Press Release, no. 16 (March 16, 1956)

Switzerland
Diplomatic relations established in 1946
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 180
E.A. Annual Report, 1946, p. 77      
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed April 11, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 180
Canadian legation established on May 23, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 180
Credentials presented Oct. 21, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 180
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 54
Canadian diplomatic mission raised to the status of embassy on May 12, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 180
E.A. Press Release, no. 18, 1953

Syria
[Syrian Arab Republic]
Diplomatic recognition Aug. 14, 1953
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 11
Ambassador appointed April 29, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 181
Diplomatic relations established on May 20, 1965
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 181
E.A. Press Release no. 34 (May 20, 1965)
Credentials presented May 27, 1965; Canadian ambassador to Lebanon concurrently accredited as ambassador to Syria
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 181
E.A. Annual Report, 1965, pp. 36, 70
External Affairs 17 (1965), p. 309
Canadian embassy established in Syria Oct. 24, 1986
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 181
See also Department of External Affairs Annual Report 1985-86, p. 43 and
E.A. Communiqué no. 92 (June 21, 1985)
Canada suspends embassy operations in Syria March 5, 2012; Canadian diplomats have left the country.
http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2012/05b.aspx?lang=eng 
Canada expels all Syrian diplomatic staff remaining in Ottawa May 21, 2012
http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2012/05/29a.aspx?lang=eng
[See also United Arab Republic – a union of Egypt and Syria formed on Feb. 1, 1958, dissolved Sept. 29, 1961.]

Taiwan
See China (Republic of)

Tajikistan (Republic of)
Ambassador to Soviet Union (subsequently Russian Federation) concurrently accredited to Tajikistan since 1990
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Diplomatic relations established in 1992
Government of Canada. “Canada – Tajikistan Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/kazakhstan/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/tajikistan-tadjikistan.aspx?lang=eng
Ambassador appointed August 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Embassy to Tajikistan established in Kazakhstan 1993
Canadian Representatives Abroad Dec. 1993, p. 103
Embassy established in Tajikistan 1998
Canadian Representatives Abroad, March 1998, p. 117

Tanganyika
Diplomatic recognition of independent Tanganyika Dec. 7, 1961
E.A. Press Release no. 83 (Dec. 4, 1961)
E.A. External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 210 [independence day incorrectly listed as Dec. 28, 1961]
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 7, 1961, to take effect Dec. 9, 1961, the date of Tanganyika’s independence
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 182       
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 14
External Affairs 14 (1962), pp. 62-66, 77
E.A. Press Release, no. 86 (Dec. 7, 1961)
High commissioner appointed Feb. 1, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, pp. 182, 183
External Affairs 14 (1962), pp. 77, 107, 196 [appointment Jan. 29, 1962]
E.A. Communiqué no. 62 (Sept. 27, 1962)
Credentials presented May 2, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 182
On April 24, 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar joined to form the United Republic of Tanzania; diplomatic relations transferred to Tanzania

Tanzania
[United Republic of Tanzania]
See also Tanganyika; on April 24, 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar joined to form the United Republic of Tanzania

Thailand
Diplomatic relations established Nov. 8, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 184
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 68; 19 (1967), pp. 268-270
Ambassador appointed Dec. 15, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 184
E.A. Press Release no. 92 (Dec. 15, 1961
Credentials presented March 2, 1962; Canadian high commissioner to Malaysia concurrently accredited as ambassador to Thailand
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 184
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 48
External Affairs 14 (1962), pp. 68-70
Canadian embassy established in Thailand Nov. 19, 1967
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 184
E.A. Press Release, no. 15 (April 27, 1967) [announcement of intent]
E.A. Press Release, no. 44 (Sept. 8, 1967)
External Affairs 19 (1967), pp. 268-270; 20 (1968), p. 128

Timor-Leste
[Also known as East Timor; officially Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste]
Canadian recognition of the successful conclusion of the election process Sept. 3, 1999
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 198, Sept. 3, 1999
Diplomatic recognition May 20, 2002
Government of Canada News Release no. 54 (May 20, 2002)
Ambassador appointed Oct. 31, 2002
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Feb. 5, 2003
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada – Timor-Leste Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/indonesia-indonesie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canada-timorleste.aspx?lang=eng

Togo
Diplomatic recognition of independent Togo on April 27, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 185
External Affairs 12 (1960), pp. 669-672
E.A. Press Release no. 33 (April 20, 1960)
Diplomatic relations established 1962
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, p. 18
Ambassador appointed March 8, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 185
E.A. Press Release no. 23 (April 27, 1962); no. 65 (Oct. 4, 1962);
1. [CA1 EA6 62A63] Nov. 19, 1962
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 107
Credentials presented June 7, 1962; Canadian high commissioner to Ghana concurrently accredited as ambassador to Togo
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 185
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 48

Tonga
[formerly the Friendly Islands]
Diplomatic relations established on June 11, 1971
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 186
External Affairs 23 (1971), p. 509
High commissioner appointed May 6, 1970
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 186
E.A. Press Release no. 44 (June 11, 1971)
Credentials presented Oct. 22, 1971; Canadian high commissioner to New Zealand concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Tonga
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 186
E.A. Annual Report, 1971, p. 12
External Affairs 23 (1971), p. 509

Trinidad and Tobago
Diplomatic recognition of independent Trinidad and Tobago Aug. 31, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 187
E.A. Statement and Speeches no. 62/12 [Sept. 25, 1962], pp. 1, 7
External Affairs 14 (1962), pp. 293-295
Trade commissioner appointed March 8, 1958
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 187       
High commissioner appointed Aug. 31, 1962; commission raised to status of high commission;
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 187       
E.A. Press Release [no. CA1 EA6 62B68] Nov. 30, 1962
External Affairs 14 (1962), pp. 293-295
See also E.A. Annual Review 1973, p. 24
Credentials presented Feb. 28, 1963
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 187
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 28, 48
See also Federation of the West Indies

Tunisia
De jure diplomatic recognition June 19, 1956
E.A. Annual Report, 1956, p. 18
E.A. Press Release no. 32 (May 31, 1957); no. 40 (June 26, 1956); no. N067 (Oct. 15, 1956)
External Affairs 8 (1956), pp. 178-181; 9 (1957), p. 168
Diplomatic relations established Sept. 9, 1957
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 188
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 142
E.A. Press Release no. 32 (May 31, 1957)
E.A. Annual Report, 1957, p. 19
Ambassador appointed Feb. 8, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 188
External Affairs 13 (1961), p. 142
Credentials presented March 1, 1961; Canadian ambassador to Switzerland concurrently accredited as ambassador to Tunisia
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 188
E.A. Annual Report, 1961, p. 44
Canadian embassy in Tunisia established on Sept. 29, 1966
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 188
E.A. Annual Report, 1966, p. 84
External Affairs 18 (1966), p. 501

Turkey
Diplomatic relations established Aug. 4, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 189
Debates, 1944, VI, p. 5917
Ambassador appointed July 7, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 189
Credentials presented Nov. 26, 1947
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 189
E.A. Annual Report, 1947, p. 55

Turkmenistan
Diplomatic relations established May 21, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 108 (May 21, 1992)
Ambassador appointed 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Credentials presented Oct. 11, 2004
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Turkmenistan Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/turkey-turquie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/canadaturkmenistan.aspx?menuid=52

Turks and Caicos Islands
Commissioner appointed Sept. 22, 1982
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/headsofpost/HPPostsMissions.aspx?lang=eng
E.A. Communiqué no. 122 (Aug. 9, 1982), p. 4 [high commissioner to Jamaica concurrently accredited to the Turks and Caicos Islands]
See also E.A. Annual Review 1974, p. 36; International Perspectives January/February 1983, p. 19
Credentials presented March 2, 1988
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Tuvalu
[formerly known as the Ellice Islands]
Diplomatic recognition of independent Tuvalu Oct. 1, 1978
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 190
E.A. Annual Review 1978, p. 47
High commission to Tuvalu established in New Zealand 1980 
Canadian Representatives Abroad, 1980, p. 59
High commissioner appointed Sept. 23, 1980
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Sept. 23, 1980
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 190

Uganda

Diplomatic recognition of independent Uganda Oct. 9, 1962
External Affairs 14 (1962), pp. 329-331
E.A. Annual Report 1962, p. 25
Diplomatic relations established Oct. 9, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 191
High commissioner appointed Oct. 11, 1962
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 191
Credentials presented Oct. 15, 1962; Canadian high commissioner to Tanganyika concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Uganda
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 191
E.A. Annual Report, 1962, pp. 18, 48
External Affairs 14 (1962), p. 329
Credentials presented again when Uganda became a republic on Oct. 9, 1963
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 191
See also External Affairs 19 (1967), p. 212
Diplomatic recognition of new government April 16, 1979
E.A. Communiqué, no. 34 1979

Ukraine
Diplomatic recognition of independent Ukraine Dec. 2, 1991
Government of Canada. “Canada – Ukraine Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/ukraine/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/index.aspx?lang=eng
Diplomatic relations established Jan. 27, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release, no. 23 (Jan. 27, 1992)
See also News Release no. 22 (Jan. 23, 1992)
Ambassador appointed July 30, 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Sept. 22, 1992
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
De facto diplomatic recognition July 3, 1922; de jure diplomatic recognition March 4, 1924
Debates, 1942, I, p. 328
Diplomatic relations established June 12, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 192
See also Debates, 1942 I, p. 328, IV, p. 3302 [diplomatic relations established Feb. 5, 1942]
Canada. Treaty Series, 1942 no. 9 (Feb. 5, 1942); no. 12 (June 12, 1942)
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Oct. 5, 1942
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 192
See also E.A. Annual Report, 1942, p. 5 [appointment announced Nov. 5, 1942]
Credentials presented March 28, 1943
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 192
Canadian legation in Kuibyshev (temporary capital of the Soviet Union at the time of the German offensive) established April 15, 1943; legation transferred to Moscow Aug. 11, 1943
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 192
E.A. Annual Report, 1943, p. 13
Ambassador appointed Dec. 9, 1943
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 192
Canadian legation raised to the status of embassy Feb. 9, 1944; credentials
presented Feb. 29, 1944
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 192

United Arab Emirates
[also known as Union of Arab Emirates and Federation of Arab Emirates]
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 2, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 193
E.A. Communiqué, no. 12 (Feb. 2, 1974)
E.A. Statements and Speeches 74/3 (March 19, 1974), p. 3
E.A. Annual Review 1973, p. 9
Ambassador appointed Feb. 26, 1974
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 193
Credentials presented Dec. 26, 1976; Canadian ambassador to Iran concurrently accredited as ambassador to the United Arab Emirates
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 193
E.A. Annual Review, 1978, p. 86
Canadian embassy subsequently relocated to Kuwait on Oct. 19, 1978; Canadian embassy opened in United Arab Emirates in autumn 1984
Dept. of External Affairs Annual Report 1983-84, p. 28

United Arab Republic
[Union of Syria and Egypt formed Feb. 1, 1958; dissolved Sept. 29, 1961]
Diplomatic recognition Feb. 24, 1958
E.A. Annual Report, 1958, p. 25
Ambassador appointed Oct. 3, 1958
External Affairs 10 (1958), p. 293
See also E.A. Press Release no. 31 (June 6, 1958); no. 47 (Sept. 15, 1958), p. 2

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
High commissioner appointed May 11, 1880
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 194
Report of the Secretary of State for External Affairs 1930, p. 17
Credentials presented June 10, 1880; Canadian high commission to Great Britain established
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 194
See also Debates, 1928, I, pp. 2, 58; 1940, III, p. 2538 [Canadian high commission officially established July 1, 1926]

United Nations (Geneva)
Permanent delegate appointed Nov. 18, 1948
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 195
Post in Geneva opened Nov. 28, 1948
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 196
“The Permanent Mission of Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva is accredited to all of the Specialized Agencies of the United Nations with headquarters in that city:  the International Labour Organization (ILO), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).  It is also accredited to the Secretariat of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 196                     

United Nations (New York)
Permanent delegate appointed Jan. 9, 1948
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 196
See also E.A. Press Release no. 2 (Jan. 2, 1948)
External Affairs 1/8 (November 1949), p. 28

United Nations Conference on Disarmament
Permanent representative appointed July 4, 1995
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Permanent delegate appointed April 13, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 199
Credentials presented April 2, 1960
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 199

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Ambassador appointed May 10, 2005
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Report of Canada to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Ottawa:  Minister of Supply and Services, Canada, 1994, pp. 12, 15

United Republic of Tanzania – see Tanzania

United States of America
Diplomatic relations established Dec. 13, 1926
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 202
Debates, 1926-27, I, p. 41
House of Commons Journals 62 (1926-27), p. 293
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 25, 1926
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 201
Credentials presented Feb. 18, 1927; Canadian legation officially opened; legation raised to embassy status on Jan. 12, 1943 [1944?]
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, pp. 201-202
Report of the Secretary of State for External Affairs 1930, p. 17
E.A. Annual Report, 1944, p. 24
Skilling, Canadian Representation Abroad, p. 213

United States of America (pre-legation representation)
Chairman appointed Feb. 2, 1918
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 200
Credentials presented Nov. 7, 1918
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 200
Canadian War Mission established Nov. 7, 1918; closed on March 31, 1921
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 20

Upper Volta
(see Burkina Faso)

Uruguay
Diplomatic recognition Feb. 27, 1951
E.A. Press Release, no. 11 (Feb. 27, 1951)
E.A. Annual Report, 1951, p. 20
Diplomatic relations established Feb. 27, 1951
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 205
E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 19
See also E.A. Press Release no. 78 (Dec. 4, 1952)
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 5, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 204
E.A. Press Release no. 78 (Dec. 4, 1952)
E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 35;
Credentials presented Jan. 9, 1953
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 204
E.A. Annual Report, 1953, p. 15            
Chargé d’affaires a.i. appointed March 30, 1953; Canadian ambassador to Argentina concurrently accredited as ambassador to Uruguay; chargé d’affaires a.i. in place in Uruguay from 1953 to 1970; Canadian legation in Uruguay established
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 204
External Affairs 5 (1953), p. 213
Ambassador appointed Feb. 5, 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 204
Credentials presented April 26, 1961; legation raised to embassy status in 1961
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 205
Embassy subsequently moved to Argentina for austerity reasons Nov. 3, 1969
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 205
E.A. Annual Report, 1969, p. 29
E.A. Press Release, no. 64 (Nov. 3, 1969)

Uzbekistan
Diplomatic relations established May 21, 1992
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 108 (May 21, 1992)
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Ambassador appointed Nov. 25, 1994
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 238 (Dec. 17, 1992)
Credentials presented Nov. 20, 1996
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also Government of Canada. “Canada – Uzbekistan Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/russia-russie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/uzbekistan-ouzbekistan.aspx

Vanuatu
[formerly known as New Hebrides]
Diplomatic relations established on July 30, 1980, the date of Vanuatu’s independence
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 206      
E.A. Annual Report, 1980, pp. 35, 59
High commissioner appointed Sept. 22, 1980
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Credentials presented Sept. 22, 1980; Canadian high commissioner to Australia concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Vanuatu
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 206
See also E.A. Communiqué no. 88 (Oct. 15, 1980)

Vatican City
See Holy See

Venezuela
Trade Commission raised to consulate-general status April 1946
E.A. Annual Report, 1949, p. 26
Diplomatic recognition Feb. 14, 1948
E.A. Press Release, no. 16 (Feb. 14, 1948)
Diplomatic relations established Nov. 22, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 207
E.A. Press Release no. 76 (Nov. 22, 1952)
[diplomatic relations established Feb. 14, 1948?]
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
See also E.A. Press Release, no. 16 (Feb. 14, 1948)
Ambassador appointed Oct. 30, 1952
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 207
E.A. Press Release no. 76 (Nov. 22, 1952)
Credentials presented Jan. 15, 1953; Canadian embassy established
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 207
E.A. Annual Report 1952, p. 35; Annual Report 1953, p. 15
E.A. Press Release no. 76 (Nov. 22, 1952)
External Affairs 5 (1953), p. 213
Canadian chargé d’affaires declared persona non grata and to be expelled from Venezuela
Statement Dec. 25, 2017
https://www.canada.ca/en/globalaffairs/news/2017/12/statementbyministerofforeignaffairsonexpulsionofcanadiancharge.html
Embassy downgraded; to be headed by a chargé d’affaires, rather than an ambassador
May 21, 2018
https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2018/05/canada-condemns-fraudulent-presidential-elections-in-venezuela.html
See also: http://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/issuesdevelopment-enjeuxdeveloppement/responseconflict-reponseconflits/crisis-crises/venezuela.aspx?lang=eng&ga=2.137282928.1720632045.1527032464-1677639008.1527032464
Decision to reject the legitimacy of the government of Nicolás Maduro and to recognize Juan Guiadó, president of the National Assembly, as the interim president of Venezuela
Statement Jan. 10, 2019
https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2019/01/canada-rejects-the-maduro-regimes-illegitimate-mandate-in-venezuela.html  
See also Statement Jan. 23, 2019
https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2019/01/canada-recognizes-the-interim-president-of-venezuela.html

Vietnam (ICSC)
Commissioner appointed Aug. 10, 1954
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 208
E.A. Press Release no. 49 (Aug. 17, 1954) [Canadian representatives appointed to the International Commissions for Supervision in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam]
See also Press Release no. 43 (July 28, 1954); E.A. Statements and Speeches 54/36
(July 28, 1954); External Affairs 6 (1954), pp. 257-258, 260-262, 299-302
“The International Commissions for Supervision and Control (ICSC) in Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam were set up to supervise the provisions of the Geneva Agreement.  Canada became a member in 1954.  In 1973 these Commissions were superseded by a new Four-Power International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS), composed of Canada, Hungary, Indonesia and Poland, to supervise the second armistice in Vietnam.  Canada withdrew from it on 29 June 1973.”
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 208
E.A. Annual Review, 1973, p. 12

Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)
Decision to recognize Vietnam as an associated state of Indo-China within the French union Dec. 30, 1952
E.A. Annual Report, 1952, p. 24
E.A. Press Release no. 84 (Dec. 30, 1952)
Diplomatic recognition of the Provisional Government of South Vietnam [Ngo Dinh Diem] Nov. 14, 1963
E.A. Annual Report, 1963, p. 21
External Affairs 15 (1963), pp. 475-476
Diplomatic recognition of Democratic Republic of [North] Vietnam [Hanoi] Feb. 7, 1973
E.A. Communiqué, no. 14 (Feb. 7, 1973)
Diplomatic relations with Republic of [South] Vietnam [Saigon] established July 30, 1973
E.A. Annual Report, 1973, p. 13
E.A. Communiqué, no. 72 (July 30, 1973)
Diplomatic relations with the Democratic Republic of [North] Vietnam established Aug. 21, 1973 at the level of ambassador
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 209
E.A. Communiqué no. 75 (Aug. 21, 1973)
Ambassador appointed to Democratic Republic of [North] Vietnam Nov. 13, 1973; ambassador to People’s Republic of China concurrently appointed to Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 209
E.A. Communiqué no. 109 (Nov. 23, 1973)
Ambassador appointed to Republic of [South] Vietnam Nov. 23, 1973; ambassador to Thailand concurrently appointed to Republic of Vietnam
E.A. Communiqué no. 109 (Nov. 23, 1973
Credentials presented to Democratic Republic of [North] Vietnam Jan. 31, 1975
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 209
E.A. Annual Report, 1975, p. 14
mbassy in Saigon [South Vietnam] closed April 24, 1974
E.A. Annual Report, 1975, p. 14
Diplomatic recognition of Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam
April 30, 1975
E.A. Communiqué, no. 36 (May 15, 1975)
Diplomatic relations with Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam established June 25, 1975
E.A. Annual Report, 1975, p. 14
E.A. Communiqué no. 50 (June 27, 1975)
Temporary withdrawal of personnel from embassy in Saigon April 24, 1975
E.A. Communiqué no. 28 (April 24, 1975)
E.A. Statement May 26, 1975
E.A. Statement and Speeches 75/16 (May 26, 1975)
Diplomatic relations with Socialist Republic of Vietnam [formed July 2, 1976] established July 2, 1976; no new diplomatic recognition at the request of the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
E.A. Annual Review, 1976, p. 13
On July 2, 1976, North and South Vietnam officially reunified under the name of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; Canadian ambassador to the People’s Republic of China concurrently accredited to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; due to Sino-Vietnamese tensions, Canadian embassy to Socialist Republic of Vietnam relocated to Thailand, effective July 26, 1979
Canadian Heads of Post Abroad, p. 209
Ambassador of Socialist Republic of Vietnam declared persona non grata May 29, 1979
E.A. Communiqué no. 30 (May 29, 1979)
Canadian embassy in Vietnam established July 1, 1991
Secretary of State for External Affairs News Release no. 144 (June 18, 1991)

West Indies, Federation of
See Federation of the West Indies

West Indies Associated States
[Created in 1967; included Antigua, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent; succeeded by the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States in 1981]
Canadian high commission to West Indies associated states established in Trinidad and Tobago [Oct. 27, 1967]* 1967
E.A. Annual Report, 1967, p. 20
See also External Affairs 19 (1967), pp. 128-130
Canadian Representatives Abroad, February 1967, p. 43
See also information under the name of each state

Western Samoa (see Samoa)

Windward Islands
[Dominica, Grenada, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent]
High commission to Windward Islands established in Barbados, 1973
E.A. Annual Review, 1973, p. 24
See also information under the name of each island
See also Trinidad and Tobago; Federation of the West Indies

World Food Program
Permanent representative appointed June 12, 2003
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

World Trade Organization
Canada became a member Jan. 1, 1995
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 249 (Dec. 15, 1994)
Ambassador and permanent representative appointed 1995
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng

Yemen (Arab Republic)
Diplomatic relations established in 1975 [1974?]
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 211
Announcement of intent:  E.A. Statement March 19, 1974, p. 2
E.A. Statements and Speeches 74/3 (March 19, 1974), p. 3
See also E.A. Annual Review 1973, p.  9
Ambassador appointed Dec. 2, 1975
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 211
Credentials presented Dec. 30, 1975; Canadian ambassador to Saudi Arabia concurrently accredited as ambassador to the Yemen Arab Republic
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 211         

Yemen (People’s Democratic Republic of)
Diplomatic relations established in 1976 [1974?]
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 212
Announcement of intent:  E.A. Statement March 19, 1974, p. 2
E.A. Statements and Speeches 74/3 (March 19, 1974), p. 3
See also E.A. Annual Review 1973, p.  9
Ambassador appointed May 20, 1976
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 212
Credentials presented July 20, 1976; Canadian ambassador to Saudi Arabia concurrently accredited as ambassador to the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 212
Canadian Representatives Abroad, December 1976, p. 65
See also Debates, 1974, I (1st Session, 30th Parliament), p. 436

Yemen (Republic of)
[created by the unification of Yemen Arab Republic and People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen in 1990]
Diplomatic recognition May 23, 1990
E.A. Press Release no. 109 (May 23, 1990)
Ambassador appointed Sept. 28, 1989
Global Affairs Canada Heads of Post List
http://w03.international.gc.ca/HeadsOfPost/Results-Resultats.aspx?lang=eng
Embassy to Republic of Yemen established in Saudi Arabia 1990
Canadian Representatives Abroad, November 1990, p. 100                     

Yugoslavia
[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia]
Diplomatic relations established on Feb. 9, 1942
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 214
Debates, 1942, I, p. 401
E.A. Annual Report, 1942, p. 5, 17
Canadian legation to the Yugoslavian government-in-exile in London established Nov. 30, 1942
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 214
External Affairs 15 (1963), p. 180
Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary appointed Nov. 5, 1942
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 213
Credentials presented May 7, 1943
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 213
Legation in Yugoslavia established Feb. 26, 1948
E.A. Annual Report, 1948, p. 102
E.A. Press Release no. 1 (Jan. 2, 1948)
Ambassador appointed June 1, 1951; legation given embassy status July 2, 1951
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 213
E.A. Annual Report, 1951, p. 15
Credentials presented Oct. 23, 1951
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 213
“By October 1942, the Canadian government concluded that Canada’s relations with the Allied Governments … in exile should be handled by an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, who should reside in London and be formally accredited to each of them: namely, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Yugoslavia, Norway, the Netherlands and Poland ...  On 30 December 1943 [this minister] left London for Algiers”; on March 11, 1944 Yugoslavian government in exile returned to London; Canadian legation established on Feb. 26; legation given embassy status on July 2, 1951
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 214
Canadian embassy established in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade News Release no. 227 (Oct. 21, 1999) and no. 34 (March 16, 2001)
Embassy in former Yugoslavia closed July 2009
Government of Canada. “Canada-Bosnia and Herzegovina Relations”
http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/hungary-hongrie/bilateralrelationsbilaterales/bosnia-bosnie.aspx?lang=eng

Zaire
See Congo (Democratic Republic of)
[formerly known as the Belgian Congo, Congo (Leopoldville),Republic of Congo (Leopoldville); Congo (Kinshasa) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; name changed to Zaire Oct. 27, 1971; name changed to Democratic Republic of Congo in 1997]                                 

Zambia
[formerly known as Northern Rhodesia]
Diplomatic recognition of independent Zambia Oct. 24, 1964 (date of independence)
E.A. Annual Report, 1964, p. 34
External Affairs 16 (1964), pp. 350, 597-603
E.A. Communiqué no. 76 (Oct. 20, 1964)
Diplomatic relations established on Oct. 24, 1964
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 216
[diplomatic relations established in 1966?  E.A. Communiqué no. 55 (July 12, 1972)]
High commissioner appointed April 1966
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 216     
E.A. Communiqué no. 55 (July 12, 1972)
Credentials presented April 13, 1966; Canadian ambassador to Zaire concurrently accredited to Zambia
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 216
Canadian high commission in Zambia established in 1972
E.A. Annual Review, 1972, p. 9
E.A. Communiqué no. 55 (July 12, 1972) [first resident high commissioner appointed]

Zanzibar
(See also Tanzania)
Diplomatic recognition of independent Zanzibar
E.A. Press Release A. 75 (Dec. 6, 1963)
See also External Affairs 16 (1964), pp. 25-26, 41
Diplomatic recognition of Zanzibar on Feb. 24, 1964
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 217
Debates, 1964, I, pp. 129-130
High commissioner appointed April 16, 1964; Canadian high commissioner to Tanganyika concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Zanzibar
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 217
[On April 24, 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar joined to form the United Republic of Tanzania]
External Affairs 16 (1964), p. 530

Zimbabwe
[formerly Rhodesia]
Canadian government’s refusal to recognize the unilateral declaration of independence by the Rhodesian government on Nov. 11, 1965
External Affairs 17 (1965), p. 534
Intended diplomatic recognition of independent Zimbabwe April 17, 1980
E.A. Communiqué, no. 20 (April 15, 1980)
See also E.A. Annual Review 1980, p. 53
Diplomatic relations established on April 19, 1980
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 218
E.A. Communiqué, no. 24 (April 19, 1980)
High commissioner appointed April 17, 1980; Canadian high commissioner to Zambia concurrently accredited as high commissioner to Zimbabwe
Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad, p. 218
See also E.A. Communiqué no. 66 (Aug. 6, 1980), p. 3
High commission in Zimbabwe established, credentials presented April 30, 1980
E.A. Communiqué, no. 24, 1980

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About the Author

Linwood DeLong was a librarian at the University of Winnipeg for 30 years.  He holds a B.A. from Mt. Allison University, an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Toronto and a Master of Library Science from the University of Western Ontario. He has published articles on library science topics including library collections of Canadian think tank documents, indexing and abstracting terminology, and collections development. The first edition of his Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations was published in 1985. He is currently retired.

The author can be reached here.

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Canadian Global Affairs Institute

The Canadian Global Affairs Institute focuses on the entire range of Canada’s international relations in all its forms including (in partnership with the University of Calgary’s School of Public Policy), trade investment and international capacity building. Successor to the Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute (CDFAI, which was established in 2001), the Institute works to inform Canadians about the importance of having a respected and influential voice in those parts of the globe where Canada has significant interests due to trade and investment, origins of Canada’s population, geographic security (and especially security of North America in conjunction with the United States), social development, or the peace and freedom of allied nations. The Institute aims to demonstrate to Canadians the importance of comprehensive foreign, defence and trade policies which both express our values and represent our interests.

The Institute was created to bridge the gap between what Canadians need to know about Canadian international activities and what they do know. Historically Canadians have tended to look abroad out of a search for markets because Canada depends heavily on foreign trade. In the modern post-Cold War world, however, global security and stability have become the bedrocks of global commerce and the free movement of people, goods and ideas across international boundaries. Canada has striven to open the world since the 1930s and was a driving factor behind the adoption of the main structures which underpin globalization such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization and emerging free trade networks connecting dozens of international economies. The Canadian Global Affairs Institute recognizes Canada’s contribution to a globalized world and aims to inform Canadians about Canada’s role in that process and the connection between globalization and security.

In all its activities the Institute is a charitable, non-partisan, non-advocacy organization that provides a platform for a variety of viewpoints. It is supported financially by the contributions of individuals, foundations, and corporations. Conclusions or opinions expressed in Institute publications and programs are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Institute staff, fellows, directors, advisors or any individuals or organizations that provide financial support to, or collaborate with, the Institute.

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